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题名: 海洋机器人水动力数值计算方法及其应用研究
其他题名: Numerical Calculation Methods for Hydrodynamics of Unmanned Marine Vehicles and their Application
作者: 胡志强
导师: 林扬
分类号: TP242
关键词: 海洋机器人 ; 计算流体动力学 ; 水动力 ; 数值计算
页码: 118页
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2013-05-31
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 北京
作者部门: 海洋信息技术装备中心
中文摘要: 本文结合中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所研制长航程水下机器人、4500 米级深海资源勘察水下机器人、50 公斤级便携式水下机器人、半潜式无人航行器、混合型海洋机器人等项目的实际需求,以及6000 米水下机器人实用化改造的需要,开展基于计算流体动力学技术的海洋机器人水动力数值计算方法及其应用研究,解决水动力数值计算的上述相关问题,快速准确获取各类海洋机器人的水动力数据,包括阻力、操纵性水动力、波浪力等,为海洋机器人总体设计优化、运动建模与预报、控制算法研究和仿真等提供支撑和依据。主要研究内容如下:(1)计算流体动力学参数对阻力计算精度的影响分析。在简要说明基于计算流体动力学(CFD)技术计算海洋机器人水动力的基本原理、基本流程和计算精度验证方法的基础上,主要讨论了流域参数和网格参数对阻力计算结果的影响。基于堵塞效应给出了流域设置的最小尺寸建议值;基于边界层理论和仿真试验给出了边界层网格参数、面网格参数和体网格参数的指导性计算公式,并采用国际公认的SUBOFF 标准潜艇模型对指导公式进行了验证。流域参数和网格参数的量化准则的明确提出,避免了CFD 计算中参数设置的盲目性,保证了计算结果的一致性,为论文后续水动力的高精度计算提供了基本依据。(2)采用相对运动变换思想,在流域相对静止(即“水动物不动”)条件下研究了海洋机器人粘性类水动力的数值计算问题,尤其是旋转运动相关的水动力。分别提出了旋转坐标系法、附加动量源法和旋转动量源法共三种方法用于模拟旋臂水池试验以获取海洋机器人水动力,避免了直接运动模拟(即“物动水不动”)带来的计算资源消耗大、计算时间长、收敛性不好等问题。三种计算方法获得的计算结果分别与6000 米水下机器人、长航程水下机器人的模型试验数据和国际公认的SUBOFF 标准潜艇模型的试验数据进行了对比分析,验证了计算方法的准确性和高效性。(3)在“水动物不动”的指导思想下,基于粘性类水动力计算中所提出的附加动量源法研究了海洋机器人惯性类水动力,即附加质量的数值计算问题。以圆球体、椭球体为例,通过模拟水池振荡试验,在附加动量源基本理论和框架下,探索了动量源形式、流域形状、湍流模型、入口边界条件、振荡周期、网格尺度等因素对附加质量计算结果的影响,形成了一套粘性流控制方程下的附加质量高精度计算方法。至此,基于本文所提方法,可完整解决海洋机器人全套操纵性水动力系数的快速准确获取问题。(4)根据平面进行波的基本理论,初步探讨了粘性流数值造波和海洋机器人波浪力数值计算问题。基于速度入射和前馈控制思想,推导了数值造波动量源,造波结果与理论波形的对比表明了该方法对波形的较好跟随和对速度场、压力场的准确预报。采用该方法对混合型海洋机器人在4 级海浪的典型波浪参数作用下的迎浪运动响应进行了仿真分析。(5)基于前述水动力数值计算方法,结合某混合型海洋机器人和4500 米级深海资源勘察水下机器人的设计过程,开展了计算方法的应用研究。首先建立了水动力自动化计算流程,采用CST 方法设计了混合型海洋机器人翼身融合体外形,基于粘性类水动力和惯性类水动力计算方法,计算了混合型海洋机器人和4500 米级深海资源勘察水下机器人操纵性设计所需的各类操纵性水动力导数,指导了操纵面设计,并预报了含操纵面外形的水动力特性。
英文摘要: Combining with the projects needs of Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, such as the long range UUV, the 4500 meters deep-sea resources survey AUV, 50 kg man-portable UUV, semi-submersible USV, hybrid UMV, and the 6000 meters UUV, this thesis researches on the UMVs’ hydrodynamic numerical methods based on the CFD technique and their application, to solve the issues related to hydrodynamic calculation, and to quickly get all kinds of UMVs’ hydrodynamic characteristics, including resistance, maneuverability hydrodynamics, wave force, and so on. It also provides support and basis for UMVs’ general design optimization, motion modeling and prediction. The main contents of this thesis are as follows: (1) Analyzing the effect of CFD parameters on the resistance calculation results. On the basis of a brief description about the basic principles, basic processes and uncertainty validation methods of UMVs’ hydrodynamic calculation based on CFD technique, the effect of domain parameters and grid parameters on resistance calculation results is discussed. The principle of minimum size of domain based on block effect is given; the guidance formula of the parameters of boundary layer mesh, surface mesh and volume mesh based on the boundary layer theory is also given. And the formula is verified by SUBOFF standard model. The quantitative criterion of domain parameters and grid parameters provides a basic reference for high-precision calculation of hydrodynamic later in this thesis. (2) Researching the problem of numerically computing the UMVs’ viscous hydrodynamics, especially turning-related hydrodynamics. Using relative motion transform ideas, three type of methods including rotating coordinate system method, added momentum sources method and rotating momentum sources method, are proposed to simulate rotating-arm basin experiment, which avoid the problem of large computing resources, long computation time, and low convergence with the use of direct motion simulation. Three methods are used in the hydrodynamic calculation and analysis for the 6000 meters UUV, the long-range UUV and the hybrid UMV. And the comparison with the model experiment data verifies the validity and reliability of these calculation methods. (3) Studying the problem of computing the UMVs’ inertia hydrodynamics, i.e. added masses, based on the added momentum sources. Taking a sphere and an ellipsoid as examples, through the simulation of oscillation experiments in the tank, the impact of the domain shape, boundary conditions, period of oscillation, grid size and other factors on the calculation results of added mass are discussed under the basic theory and frame of the added momentum sources methods. A series of methods for calculation of added mass are developed under the viscous flow government equations. The comparison between the calculation results and the theoretical results indicates that the calculation method is efficient and accurate. (4) Preliminary discussing the problem of wave making and wave force calculation for UMVs in the viscous flow according to the basic theory of the plane progressive wave. Based on the incident velocity and feed-forward control thought, the formula of momentum sources for numerical wave making is derived. The comparison between the numerical wave and theoretical waveform indicates that the numerical wave follows the waveform well. With this method, hybrid UMV’s trim motion response under 4 sea conditions’ characteristic plane waves is simulated and analyzed. (5) Based on the above hydrodynamics computational methods, combining the design processes of a hybrid UMV and a 4500 meters deep-sea resources survey AUV, applications of the numerical methods are developed. First, an automatic hydrodynamics calculation process is established. A hybrid UMV with blended wing body is designed, and all kinds of hydrodynamic coefficients which is required for the design of maneuverability are calculated based on the viscous and inertia hydrodynamic calculation methods, to guide the two UMVs’ control surface design, and to predict the hydrodynamic performances of the two UMVs with control surface.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/10735
Appears in Collections:海洋信息技术装备中心_学位论文

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