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题名: 玻璃基板搬运机器人参数辨识与误差补偿方法研究
其他题名: Research on Method of Parameter Identification and Error Compensation of Glass Substrate Transferring Robot
作者: 冯亚磊
导师: 曲道奎 ; 徐方
分类号: TP242
关键词: 玻璃基板搬运机器人 ; 零位参数 ; 柔性参数 ; 运动学参数 ; 参数辨识 ; 绝对定位误差 ; 误差补偿
页码: 91页
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2013-05-30
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 其他
中文摘要: 以提高玻璃基板搬运机器人的绝对定位精度为研究目标,在对机器人的定位误差来源进行详细分析的基础上,确定将机器人的零位参数、运动学参数和柔性参数的辨识和补偿作为提高机器人精度的主要途径。基于机器人参数辨识的研究现状,重点从零位参数辨识方法、柔性参数误差模型与运动学误差模型的耦合关系、柔性参数辨识方法、柔性变形对运动学参数辨识效果的影响以及机器人定位误差综合补偿等方面开展研究工作。首先,结合辨识法和几何法的优点提出了一种基于双轴倾角传感器的新零位标定方法,这种方法通过仪器的两次安装和对机器人的简便操作后即可完成整个零位标定。建立了新标定方法所涉及的参考零位和2 轴零位获取方法及3~6轴零位辨识方法两大关键问题的理论依据,并对辨识过程进行了仿真。对新标定方法的可行性进行了实验,证实了所提出的零位标定方法可大幅降低机器人的定位误差,具有节省成本、操作简便、辨识精确的技术特点。其次,建立了机器人运动学参数误差模型、关节柔性参数误差模型以及连杆柔性参数误差模型,并在此基础上结合DH 模型和连杆弹性梁模型推导出运动学参数与柔性参数的耦合误差模型,为进行柔性参数的辨识和柔性变形误差的补偿奠定了基础。分别基于圆点分析法和有限元分析法完成了机器人关节和连杆柔度参数的辨识。在圆点分析法的应用中,为避免刚体运动对圆点测量精度的影响,增加了转动中心处的测量点,使最终测量得到的末端测量点轨迹更接近于圆弧,从而提高了关节柔度辨识的准确性。对柔性变形的计算结果进行了实验,证实了模型和辨识结果的准确性。再次,利用最小二乘法建立了机器人运动学参数的辨识模型,并从提高辨识过程效率的角度出发,分别进行了参数辨识的灵敏度调整和测量位姿的选择优化。在此基础上,对机器人柔性变形对运动学参数辨识精度的影响进行了仿真分析,发现若不考虑柔性变形将造成参数辨识出现较大的偏差,为此提出基于柔性变形补偿的运动学参数辨识方法,并将其成功应用在SR210B 型机器人的运动学参数辨识实验中。最后,进行了机器人自身的运动学参数误差和柔性变形误差补偿实验,将机器人自身的定位精度提高到一个新的水平。针对玻璃基板在机器人手叉上的变形,提出了相应的变形调整方法,使机器人可满足玻璃基板的高速、高精度需求。
英文摘要: This paper is to improve the accuracy of the glass substrate transferring robot. By analyzing the source of robot position error, it is confirmed to improve the robot accuracy through identification and compensation of the zero-offset parameters, kinematic parameters and flexible parameters. Based the development of the robot parameters identification, the research mainly focuses on the follow parts, new zero-offset parameter identification method, coupled model of flexible parameters and kinematic parameters, identification of flexible parameters, the influence of the flexible deformation on the kinematic parameter identification and robot positioning error compensation. Firstly, a new zero-offset identification method is put forward based on a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the existing robot home position calibration methods. The robot zero-offset calibration can be completed through two times' installation of the dual-axis inclinometers which are the basis of the method and some simple operation with the robot. Compared with existing methods, the new method has the technical features of cost saving, simple operation, precise identification. The theoretical basis of the reference zero position and axis 2's zero position acquiring method and axis 3~6's zero identification method which are the two key problems involved with the new calibration method are presented. The identification process is simulated and the new calibration method is verified by a experiment. Secondly, the kinematics parameters error model, joint flexibility parameters error model and flexible link parameters error model are established, based on which the coupling error model of kinematics parameters and flexible parameters is derived combining with DH model and the elastic beam model, which laid the foundation for identification of flexible parameters. The identification of robot joint and link flexibility parameters are completed based on the circle-point analysis method and the finite element analysis method respectively. In the application of circle-point analysis method, to avoid the effect of rigid body motion on circle measuring precision, a marker-point is added on the center of rotation, so the final measurement result is more close to pure rotation, thereby to improve the accuracy of joint flexibility measurement. The flexible deformation calculation results are verified by an experiment, so the accuracy of model and identification results are both confirmed. Thirdly, the robot kinematic parameters identification model is established using the least square method, and then, the parameter identification sensitivity is adjusted and the selection of measurement poses is optimized from the perspective of improving the efficiency of the recognition process. The affect of the robot flexible deformation on the kinematic parameter identification precision is analyzed by simulation, it is shown that there exists a big deviation in parameter identification without considering flexible deformation, so a kinematic parameter identification method which has taken flexible deformation in consider is proposed and is successfully applicated in the kinematic parameter identification of SR210B robot. Lastly, the robot flexible deformation error compensation experiment is carried out, and the positioning accuracy of robot itself is improved to a new level. A adjusting method is proposed to compensate the deformation of glass substrate when it is carried on the robot fork, so the glass substrate transferring robot can meet the demand of high speed, high precision in handling the glass substrates.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/10773
Appears in Collections:其他_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
冯亚磊.玻璃基板搬运机器人参数辨识与误差补偿方法研究.[博士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2013
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