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题名: 红外距离感知器关键技术研究
其他题名: Study the key technology of the infrared distance sensors
作者: 宋杰
导师: 李斌
分类号: TP212
关键词: 红外距离感知器 ; 红外测距 ; 太阳辐射
页码: 69页
学位专业: 控制工程
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2013-05-28
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 我国重大空间计划专项“嫦娥三号”重要的科学目标之一是研究月球的岩石类型及有关元素的分布,对月球表面有开发利用和研究价值的元素进行含量与分布情况的探测。α粒子激发x射线谱仪(APXS)是安装于嫦娥三号巡视器机械臂前端的唯一载荷,它的主要功能是利用其携带的放射源发射出的α粒子作用到物质表面,与物质表面发生作用产生x射线荧光。通过探测和数据分析,确定特征x射线的强度和能量,从而得知探测元素的含量和种类。α粒子激发x射线谱仪(APXS)探测器头部极易产生物理性损坏,与月球表面的月壤、月岩等产生直接接触会造成探测器头部的污染和损坏。为了确保APXS探头的安全,必须精确可靠地测量出探测器与月球表面之间的距离。红外距离感知器是一种非接触式光电限位传感器,基本原理为红外发光管发出红外光,光敏接收管就会接收前方障碍物反射回来的光,由此可以判断前方是否有物体。它具有实时性好、体积小、重量轻、结构简单、性能可靠、成本低等优点,因此,红外距离感知器具有广阔的应用前景。依托探月工程二期有效载荷 “CE-3探测器有效载荷APXS月面距离感知”课题,本文开展了以下研究工作:(1)太阳辐射对红外距离感知器的正常工作起重要的影响作用。本文根据红外辐射及传输理论,详细计算了太阳红外辐射对红外距离感知器测距的影响,为选择红外距离感知器的接受管提供了理论依据;太阳紫外辐射光子能量可使光学系统膜层材料分子键断裂,本文通过紫外辐射对光学材料的分析,研究了减少紫外辐射影响的镀膜措施,从而延长器件的使用寿命。(2)红外距离感知器输出信号随距离变化会产生拐点,利用产生的拐点实现测距功能。本文建立了影响拐点的分析模型,开展了实验,分析了误差,验证了模型的正确性,该项研究工作对系统结构设计、算法参数选取具有重要的意义。(3)设计了该红外距离感知器的控制系统,硬件处理电路主要由比例运放、模拟开关通道选择、A/D转换、FPGA控制处理电路等几个部分组成,核心部件采用Actel公司的ProASIC3 A3P250芯片;通过硬件描述语言VHDL实现了接口程序及软件算法的设计,并采用Synplify、ModelSim、Designer、FlashPro等软件实现了软件功能及系统的测试仿真。(4)最后为验证搭建的红外距离感知器控制系统的功能,本文进行了单点重复精度实验、振动实验、温度循环实验,实验结果证明在不同环境下红外距离感知器仍具备距离感知功能以及采用算法的可靠性。
英文摘要: "Chang'e III" major space programs in China one of the important scientific goal is to study the moon rock types and the elements distribution, utilization and research value of the elements of the detection of content distribution on the surface of the moon. Alpha particle excitations x-ray spectrometer (APXS) is installed in the front of Chang'e III patrol robot arm load, its main function is to use the carrying of the alpha particles of radioactive source emits a effect to the surface of a material, and material surface produce X-ray fluorescence. By detecting and data analysis, to determine the intensity of characteristic X-ray and energy, thus learned that detecting element content and types. Alpha particle excitations x-ray spectrometer (APXS) detector head is easy to produce physical damage, direct contact with the surface of the moon, lunar soil, lunar rocks cause pollution and damage of the detector head. In order to ensure the security of APXS probe must be accurate and reliable to measure the distance between the probe and the surface of the moon. Infrared distance sensor is a kind of non-contact photoelectric limit sensor, the basic principle for light-emitting tube infrared light, photosensitive receiver tube receiving the front of the reflected light of the object, to judge whether there are obstacles ahead. It has good real-time, small size, light weight, simple structure, reliable performance, low cost, therefore, infrared distance perception devices have broad application prospects. Relying on the lunar exploration project phase II payload "CE-3 detector payload APXS surface distance perception" project, this paper conducted the following research work: (1) Solar radiation plays an important role on the normal operation of the infrared distance sensor. Based on the theory of infrared radiation and transmission, detailed calculation of the sun's infrared radial influence on infrared distance sensor range, select accept tube infrared distance sensors provide a theoretical basis; Solar ultraviolet radiation photon energy to break molecular bonds can make the optical system. Analysis of optical materials by ultraviolet radiation, this paper studied the measures to reduce the effects of ultraviolet radiation coating, so as to prolong the service life of components. (2) Change with distance, the infrared distance sensor output signal generated inflection point, using the inflection point distance function. Affect inflection point analysis model is established, this paper carried out the experiment, analyzes the error, verify the correctness of the model, the research work on the system structure design, the algorithm parameters selection is of great importance. (3) Design the control system of infrared distance sensors, hardware processing circuit is mainly composed of operational amplifier, analog switch channel selection, A/D conversion, the FPGA control processing circuit and so on, the core components is ProASIC3 A3P250 chips of Actel company; Through hardware description language VHDL to realize the design of interface program and software algorithm, and software features and system test simulation using Synplify, ModelSim, Designer, FlashPro software. (4) Finally for the validation of the control system of infrared distance sensors function, this article has carried on the single point repeatability experiment, vibration, temperature cycle test, the experimental results show that infrared distance sensors in different environment still have distance perception function and the reliability of the algorithm.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/10781
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
宋杰.红外距离感知器关键技术研究.[硕士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2013
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