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题名: 面向可控纳米操作的嵌入式控制器研究
其他题名: Embedded Controller Research for Controllable Nanomanipulation
作者: 赵鑫斌
导师: 席宁 ; 董再励
分类号: TP332.3
关键词: 纳米操作 ; AFM ; FPGA ; 信号完整性
页码: 74页
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2013-05-28
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 纳米技术被认为是21世纪最有发展前景的研究方向之一,其发展将对各个领域产生深远影响,因此当今各国都将纳米技术研究作为国家发展战略。1986年原子力显微镜(Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM)的发明对纳米技术的发展起到了巨大的推动作用。AFM是一种可实现纳米观测和操作的工具,它不仅能够实现在大气环境中对纳米级别物体的观测,还能够通过控制探针的状态实现纳米尺度操作。由于AFM具备高分辨率,运动控制精确、可重复,环境适应性强等特点,因此近年来在纳米观测和操作领域得到了广泛的应用。AFM可通过控制探针的状态(运动轨迹、作用力等)实现纳米操作,但是这种操作方式的效率和精确性受到一定制约。基于AFM工作机理,操作和观测无法同时进行,因此AFM的纳米操作是一种盲作业状态,操作过程缺乏实时反馈信息。同时由于微观尺度物体的受力和运动状态难以精确描述,无法通过模型得到精确的控制结果,因此使用AFM进行纳米操作的成功率、效率及灵活性都很低,这些问题严重阻碍了AFM纳米操作的发展与应用。针对AFM纳米操作中存在的上述问题,本论文以任务空间实时反馈纳米操作机器人为基础,开展高速高精度嵌入式控制器研究,实现高速局部扫描与实时反馈控制的AFM纳米操作技术,为高集成度与通用性的,更高效灵活的纳米操作系统实现提供技术支撑。主要开展的研究工作如下:针对高速局部扫描与实时视觉反馈的需要,研究提出了具有高速高精度模数、数模转换与通讯功能的基于FPGA嵌入式系统的控制器方案。针对控制器电路的可靠性,开展了基于信号完整性理论的控制器电路噪声分析研究,进行了关键网络的仿真实验研究,有效提高了电路PCB设计的可靠性和设计效率。完成了高速高精度数模、模数转换、以太网通信等功能模块的逻辑接口设计;进行了控制器底层驱动程序开发、简易TCP/IP协议栈移植;实现了数字PID以及局部扫描等控制算法。完成了控制器中各个模块的功能验证,通过进行探针闭环控制实验和主从式探针操作实验,证明控制器在反馈精度、控制精度、闭环控制时间等性能指标上均达到了预期设计要求。
英文摘要: Nanotechnology is considered to be one of the most promising research directions in the 21st century, and its development will have profound influence on various fields, so nowadays many countries have identified the nanotechnology as a national development strategy. In 1986, the invention of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) greatly promoted the development of nanotechnology. It is a nanolevel observation and manipulation tool, which not only can observe the nanoscale objects in the atmosphere, but also can operate them by controlling the probe. AFM has advantages of high-resolution, precise motion-control, repeatable operation, and strong environment adaptability. Therefore it has been widely used in recent years. AFM realizes nanomanipulation through controlling the state of the probe, such as trajectory, force, etc. But this kind of operation has certain constraints in efficiency and accuracy. Based on the working mechanism of AFM, nanomanipulation and observation cannot be proceeded simultaneously, which means that AFM nanomanipulation is actually under a blind job status that lacks real-time feedbacks. Meanwhile, it cannot give an accurate description of the force and motion state of the micro-scale objects either, which leads to poor performance in the controlling process. These drawbacks have severely affected the success rate, efficiency and flexibility of AFM nanomanipulation and further hampered the development and application of AFM. In order to solve the above problems of AFM nanomanipulation, this paper studies the high-speed and high-precision embedded controller based on nanomanipulation robot with task-space feedback, aims to achieve high-speed local scan and real-time feedback control of AFM nanomanipulation techniques. In that way, it will provide great technical support for a more integrative, versatile, efficient and flexible nanomanipulation system. The main research work is carried out as follows: To meet the need of high-speed local-scan and real-time visual feedback, this paper proposed the controller scheme based on FPGA embedded systems that had the high-speed analog-to-digital, digital-to-analog conversion and communication functions. To ensure the reliability of the circuit function, the paper analyzed circuit noise by the theory of signal integrity and carried on the key network simulation analysis, effectively improved the efficiency and reliability of the circuit PCB design. Completed the logic interface design of the high-speed and high-precision digital-to-analog, analog-to-digital conversion modules and the Ethernet modules etc., also fulfilled the simple TCP/IP protocol stack migration, and the underlying drivers programming, and realized the control algorithm of digital PID and local-scan. Completed the functional verification of each module in the controller, and conducted the probe closed-loop control experiment and master-slave probe manipulation experiment. The results showed that the controller had reached the expected design requirements on the main performance indicators such as feedback precision, control precision and close-loop control time. This study effectively improves the instantaneity of probe feedback control, and provides a key technique to promote the efficiency of the AFM nanomanipulation system.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/10783
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
赵鑫斌.面向可控纳米操作的嵌入式控制器研究.[硕士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2013
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