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题名: 人体姿态摇摆的视觉认知机理与镇定
其他题名: Cognitive Mechanism and Stabilization of Human Postural Control Based on Visual Perception
作者: 裴立力
导师: 李洪谊
分类号: TP391.41
关键词: 人体姿态摇摆 ; 姿态控制 ; 姿态镇定 ; 足底压力中心 ; 视觉反馈
页码: 108页
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2013-05-24
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 本文着重于研究视觉参与下的人体姿态摇摆,以及如何利用视觉对人体姿态摇摆进行镇定,期望通过实验和实测的方法探索人体姿态摇摆机理,发掘人体姿态镇定的途径与机制。研究中建立了人体姿态控制的视觉实验系统,开展了多种视觉输入下的人体姿态控制实验,建立了人体姿态控制的系统模型,并探索了人体姿态信号的处理方法,获取了关于人体姿态摇摆的认知机理与镇定的初步知识,为进一步认识人体姿态控制机理打下了基础,也为进一步开展人体姿态控制的实验研究积累了经验。 1. 建立了以足底压力中心测量及投影视觉显示为核心的人体姿态控制实验系统,设计、开展了静态、动态视觉环境下的人体姿态控制实验,并将香农熵引入人体姿态信号处理,构造了人体姿态控制足底压力中心单步位移的模值熵与偏角熵,从而揭示了人体静止直立姿态控制中对姿态摇摆方向控制优于对摇摆幅度控制的特性,以及该特性对静态与动态视觉环境变化的不敏感性。 2. 将具有鲁棒性的H∞控制引入到人体姿态控制的建模当中,设计了带时变时延的H∞状态反馈控制器,给出了闭环系统渐近稳定的条件,以H∞状态反馈控制器模拟人体中枢神经系统对人体静止直立姿态的控制作用,并结合人体结构的单级倒立摆模型建立了基于H∞控制的人体姿态控制系统模型,对实测人体姿态摇摆特性进行了有效模拟。 3. 在将视觉反馈指示器应用于人体姿态镇定之前,首先考察了人体姿态摇摆对视觉反馈信号变化的响应情况,证明了视觉反馈指示器尺寸变化对于人体姿态在时域及频域的影响均不显著。同时,考察中还发现,人体姿态摇摆随着视觉反馈指示器尺寸的减小,存在频率增高的趋势,这一趋势初步揭示了视觉反馈对人体姿态控制的影响途径,而这一趋势的两种不同模式又反映出人体姿态控制对视觉反馈指示器特性变化响应的个体差异。 4. 设计了基于足底压力中心偏移量的视觉反馈指示器,通过对比视觉反馈条件下与静态视觉条件下静止直立姿态摇摆特性的变化,揭示出视觉反馈可以显著减小静止直立人体姿态摇摆幅度和范围,证明了视觉反馈的人体姿态摇摆镇定能力,同时,也揭示出视觉反馈的人体姿态摇摆镇定能力在不同摇摆方向上存在差异的特性。基于对静止直立姿态摇摆特性在视觉反馈与静态视觉条件下差异的分析,推断了视觉反馈姿态镇定作用的产生机制,视觉反馈的姿态镇定作用,可能与人体姿态调节频率的提高和人体姿态闭环控制作用的增强有关。 本文的上述研究结果中揭示的人体姿态控制特性及人体姿态摇摆对视觉信号的响应特性对于设计姿态实验具有一定的指导意义;建立的人体姿态控制模型有助于分析和解释姿态实验结果;提出的姿态镇定方法在老年人与姿态问题人群的姿态能力康复与理疗方面具有潜在的应用价值,值得进一步研究与推广。
英文摘要: We focus our investigations on postural responses to visual information and postural stabilization through human vision. We expect to explore the mechanism of postural control and find some possible ways of postural stabilization through experimental and measurement methods. In our research, an experimental system of postural control system has been established, postural experiments in several visual circumstances have been developed and carried out, and algorithms of postural signal processing have been studied, so we have obtained initial understanding about cognitive mechanism of postural sway and postural stabilization. The achievements of our study lay the foundation for further understanding of the mechanism of postural control and accumulate significant experience for further developing postural control experiments. An experimental postural control system was established with the core equipments of a force platform and projector. With this experimental system, postural experiments under static and dynamic visual circumstances were designed and performed. Modulus entropy and deflection entropy of center-of-pressure single-step displacement were constructed according to the Shanon entropy theory. The results from entropy investigations of the postural data obtained from the experiments revealed a characteristic of postural control that human upright postural control appears more regulated in direction control than in amplitude control, and this characteristic is insensitive to the change of the investigated visual conditions from static to dynamic. Robust H∞ control was introduced to modeling human postural control. A state feedback H∞ controller with varying time delay was designed, and the condition that the closed-loop system must satisfy to be asymptotically stable was given. With the state feedback H∞ controller simulating human central nervous system and a pendulum modeling the human body, a H∞ control model of human postural control was proposed to reproduce the characteristics of human postural control exhibited in postural experiments. Postural responses of variations of visual feedback indicator scales were investigated before the designed visual feedback indicator was used to stabilize postural sway. The investigation demonstrates that none statistically significant influence is imposed on the postural characteristics of time domain and frequency domain by the changes of visual feedback indicator scales. However, along with the reduction of visual feedback indicator scales, the tendency of frequency improvement of postural control was illustrated in the investigation. The tendency preliminarily indicates how the visual feedback influences postural control and the two modes of the tendency reflect individual difference in the visual feedback influence on postural control. The visual feedback indicator based on center-of-pressure deviations was designed to providing postural feedback information through human vision. Comparisons of characteristics of postural sway between in static and visual feedback conditions indicate the capability of visual feedback in postural stabilization through the suppressed postural sway amplitude and area under the visual feedback condition. The comparisons also lead to a speculation that the postural stabilization of visual feedback may be related to the improved frequency and the enhanced close-loop control of postural control under the visual feedback condition. Among the above achievements, the revealed characteristics of human postural control and of the postural response to the visual inputs have guiding significance to the design of postural experiments; the established postural control model is helpful in analyzing and explaining results of postural experiments; and the proposed method of the postural stabilization has potential application in rehabilitation and physiotherapy of the elderly and the patients with postural problems. Therefore the postural investigation is worthy to be further studied and extended to these applications.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/10784
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
裴立力.人体姿态摇摆的视觉认知机理与镇定.[博士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2013
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