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题名: 一种可重构机器人构型优化与参数标定方法研究
其他题名: Research on the Configuration Optimization and Parameter Calibration for a Reconfigurable Robot
作者: 高文斌
导师: 王洪光
分类号: TP242
关键词: 模块化可重构机器人 ; 运动学 ; 动力学 ; 构型优化 ; 参数标定
页码: 140页
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2013-05-20
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 空间自动化技术研究室
中文摘要: 本文以国家“863”计划支持项目“机器人模块化设计过程仿真演示系统设计”(课题编号:2007AA041703)和机器人学国家重点实验室课题“关节型模块化可重构机器人设计方法及实验研究”(课题编号:RLZ200802)为依托开展相关研究工作。介绍了国内外已有典型的模块化可重构机器人系统,并对研究热点问题及相关理论研究现状进行综述。介绍了笔者所在课题组研制的模块化可重构机器人实验系统的系统构成及工作方式,主要就以下几个方面开展相关研究工作: 首先,对运动学模型和动力学模型自动生成方法进行研究。根据模块化机器人系统中模块组成特点,定义一种装配映射矩阵来描述任意可重构机械臂的拓扑结构信息。基于全局指数积法实现模块化可重构机器人实验系统运动学模型的自动生成,并采用牛顿-拉夫逊迭代方法进行运动学逆问题的求解。基于装配映射矩阵描述及组成模块的几何参数和物理参数生成可重构机械臂连杆的运动学参数和动力学参数。采用牛顿-欧拉递推方程实现模块化可重构机器人实验系统动力学模型的自动生成,并分别通过仿真实验或物理样机实验对运动学模型和动力学模型自动生成方法的正确性进行验证。 其次,就模块化可重构机器人实验系统面向任务的拓扑构型优化设计开展研究。对模块的类型、参数、数量及模块间的安装顺序和装配方位等拓扑结构信息采用二进制编码。按照性质的不同将设计要求划分为刚性要求、柔性要求及刚性+柔性要求。对不满足“刚性”要求的拓扑结构通过过滤器处理,根据各设计要求对其它拓扑结构进行构型评价并以评价结果的加权和的形式建立构型评价函数。结合遍历法和遗传算法给出模块化可重构机器人实验系统的拓扑构型优化设计方法,并通过构型优化实验对方法的有效性进行验证。 然后,开展了模块化可重构机器人实验系统的参数标定相关研究。分别进行重构后机械臂标定的相关研究和模块参数标定的相关研究。前者将重构后的机械臂看作普通串联机械臂进行标定研究。基于指数积公式给出一种包含有关节约束条件的改进的串联机器人位姿标定模型,根据使用要求的不同进而又分别给出位置标定模型和距离标定模型。改进的模型较基于D-H参数法的标定模型具有更好的通用性,适合通过计算机程序自动生成。给出根据拓扑结构的装配映射矩阵描述自动生成运动学参数标定模型的方法,分别通过标定仿真实验或实际机械臂标定实验对标定模型的正确性进行验证。后者采用旋量的指数形式对关节模块、连杆模块、模块间装配方位及由关节模块和连杆模块组成的子装配体进行数学描述。对关节模块、连杆模块、子装配体及机械臂进行误差分析。建立子装配体和机械臂间的误差模型,给出一种用子装配体标定的可考虑多个机械臂装配结构信息的标定模型。建立模块和子装配体间的误差模型,给出一种用于模块参数标定的可考虑多个子装配体装配结构信息的标定模型。结合两种标定模型,给出一种可用于补偿多个可重构机械臂位姿误差的模块参数的两层式迭代标定方法,并通过仿真实验对标定方法的稳定性和有效性进行验证。 最后对本论文的主要研究工作和研究成果进行总结,并对后继的工作进行了展望。
英文摘要: The research of this paper is supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (“863” Program) item “Design of a Demo Simulating System of Modularized Design Process for Robots” (2007AA041703) and the State Key Laboratory project “Research on Design and Experiments of an Articulated Modular Robot” (RLZ200802). It’s represented the typical modular reconfigurable robot systems at home and abroad and reviewed the research hot issues as well as relevant theoretical research status. The composition and working mode of Modular Reconfigurable Robot Experiment System (MRRES) developed by our team is introduced. The main research works are as follows: First of all, it is researched about the automatically generating methods for kinematics model and dynamics model. The assembly incidence matrix is defined to describe the topology configuration of any modular manipulators in accordance with the features of modules in the modular robot system. The kinematics automatically generating method is given based on product of exponentials formula. The Newton-Raphson iterative method is adopted to achieve the inverse kinematics solution. Based on the description of assembly incidence matrix, it’s gotten the geometric parameters and physical parameters of the links of modular manipulator. Dynamics model of MRRES is automatically generated making use of Newton-Euler recursive equations. It is verified the automatically generation method of the kinematics model and the dynamics model by the simulation or physical prototype experiments. Secondly, the research on the task-based topology configuration optimization for the MRRES is presented. It’s represented the topology configuration information such as the module types, parameters, quantity, assembling sequence and orientations in binary coding. Design requirements are divided into hard ones, soft ones and hard+soft ones according to their properties. The topology structure which doesn’t meet the “hard” requirements will be processed by filters. Meanwhile, the others are evaluated under the specified design requirements and then the configuration evaluation function is constructed based on the weighted sum of the evaluation results. A topology structure optimization design method for MRRES is worked out via the combination of traversal method and genetic algorithm. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this method is verified through a configuration optimization experiment. After that, the study about the parameter calibration for MRRES is researched. Both the calibration method for the manipulator after reconfiguration and the module parameter calibration are presented. The former takes the reconstructed modular manipulator as normal serial manipulator. Based on the product of exponential formula, it is presented an improved kinematics parameter calibration method including the joint constraints for serial robots. In addition, the position calibration model and distance calibration model are given according to the different application requirements. The given calibration models have better versatility than D-H model, and have suitability for a computer program generated automatically. And according to configuration descripted by the assembly incidence matrix, the automatical generation method for the kinematics calibration model is presented. The correctness of the calibration model is proved by the calibration simulations or actual manipulator calibration experiments. The latter one takes the twist exponential map to describe the joint module, link module, the assembly orientation between two modules and the sub-assembly composed by a joint module and a link module; it’s analyzed the errors in joint modules, link modules, sub-assemblies and manipulators. The error model between the sub-assemblies and the manipulator is given, it is presented the calibration model taking the information of the structures of multiple manipulators into consideration. The error model between the modules and the sub-assembly is given, the calibration model considering the information of multiple sub-assemblies is presented. Combined these two calibration models, it is presented a two-level iterative method for module parameter calibration which can compensate the pose errors of multiple manipulators, the stability and effectiveness of the calibration method is verified by a simulation experiment. Finally, it is summarized the main research work and achievements and prospected the future work.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
Appears in Collections:空间自动化技术研究室_学位论文

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