A vision pose measurement method for non-cooperative space vehicles by using the rectangular solar panel on the vehicles is proposed to solve the problem that the cooperative markers can not be deployed on the target vehicles. The method can be briefly described below： Firstly, the non-cooperative space vehicle is photographed by a single camera in the middle-long distance （200m; 15m）, then the rectangular feature is extracted automatically by using the algorithm specially designed according to the visual characteristics of the solar panel, and finally, the pose parameters are calculated by using the high-precision and robust algorithm （the perspective-4-points （P4P） algorithm or the perspective-3-1iness （P3L） algorithm） according to the geometric constraints of the solar panel. Unlike previous pose measurement methods based on vision, the proposed method do not need to deploy cooperative markers on the target, even without human participation, therefore, it is more applicable to pose measurement of general non-cooperative space vehicles. The experimental results indicate that the method is robust to noises, its position error is less than 2.3%, and the attitude error is less than 2°. The method meets the requirements of vehicles＇ pose estimation during their tracking, approaching and flying.