The utility model relates to a miniature underwater robot propulsion control system. The system comprises an aviation socket connector, a propulsion system control panel, a motor driver and a propulsion apparatus including a plurality of steering engines and motors. The aviation socket connector is connected with the propulsion system control panel and the motor driver. The propulsion system control panel is connected with the steering engines of the propulsion apparatus and the motor driver. The motor driver is also connected with the motors of the propulsion apparatus. A modularized design idea is adopted, and a circuit is simple, easy to expand and high in transplantability. Space occupation and electric consumption of a circuit board are minimized, a control program is simplified, limited resources of a timer are effectively utilized, and the system exhibits high cost performance. The propulsion control system exhibits functions of fault detection and underwater cabin safety detection, and safety and reliability of the control system are enhanced.