The invention relates to a multithreading real-time data processing device and a multithreading real-time data processing method. The method comprises the following steps: performing corresponding initial setting according to the type and the quantity of communication interfaces creating and starting multiple threads defining and calling a callback function of each of the threads receiving or sending real-time communication data by the callback function of each of the threads if a verifying or encrypting measure exists in a communication protocol of the communication data, performing resolving and checking operations on the communication data by the callback function of each of the threads performing processing, displaying and storing operations on the real-time communication data by the callback function of each of the threads if a communication counter reaches a designated value, cleaning a data receiving/sending buffer area and if the communication is ended, ending and deleting the threads and closing all initialized ports. A master control module of the device is provided with a plurality of PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) expansion slots and USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports. Real-time data transmission is performed between the master control module and a lower computer through a communication interface module. The method and the device provided by the invention are beneficial to the communication between the master control module and various lower computers, the efficiency and the accuracy of data processing are increased.