According to morphological characteristics in the interior of ruins after an earthquake disaster, a map representation technique for ruins environment is presented, and a corresponding simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm on the basis of hybrid map is proposed. Based on the topological metric hybrid map, the algorithm describes ruins environment at different levels. At global level, the topological map organizes the overall structure and also ensures the computing capability and ambient adaptability. Then, through building a local metric map at each topological node region, irregular obstacles formed by random seismic damage are described. Finally, experiments in an artificial ruins environment show that the algorithm can realize localization and mapping at the complicated environment.