Based on the morphological characteristics of the seismic damage of the interior ruins, this paper presents a map building mechanism for simultaneous localization and mapping using analytic hierarchy process and proposes a SLAM algorithm based on the hybrid topological metric map. According to the structural characteristics of the localized destruction, the aggregation degree of corner feature is proposed as an identification method for the topological node. To ensure the computing capacity and interactivity, a global topological map is built including the completion of the node identification, logic positioning and closed-loop detection. Based on the local metric map, the detailed information of the morphology of seismic damage is represented by grid maps which ensure the environmental adaptability. Through the experimental comparison, the ability of environmental details description and closed-loop detection and the availability at an artificial ruins environment are verified. The experiments prove the feasibility of the algorithm at practical tasks such as search and rescue and disaster assessment.