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五轴数控加工轨迹优化方法研究
其他题名Research on Trajectory Optimization Method of Five-Axis CNC Machining
赵延国1,2
导师赵吉宾
分类号TG659
关键词五轴加工 刀具路径 后置处理 非线性误差 仿真
索取号TG659/Z48/2014
页数58页
学位专业机械电子工程
学位名称硕士
2014-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门装备制造技术研究室
摘要五轴数控加工技术在先进制造业中占有极其关键、重要的地位,它的发展状况已成为衡量一个机械制造企业技术发展水平乃至一个国家机械制造工业水平的重要标志之一。五轴数控机床适用于加工很多外形复杂的零件,比如发动机叶片、汽车和航空航天零件,在改善加工效率和加工精度方面表现出明显的优越性。由于复杂曲面零件形状复杂、精度要求高,加工轨迹复杂,在五轴加工轨迹优化方面需要进一步研究。本文主要在数控加工后置处理技术和五轴加工中的非线性误差问题两方面对五轴加工轨迹优化方法作了研究。针对三类常见类型的五轴数控机床,研究其结构特点,分别建立运动学模型,并利用旋转平移矩阵分析机床运动学变换关系,得到机床各轴运动坐标公式。根据机床结构类型的不同,旋转轴的运动坐标存在多解的情况。而受到具体机床结构的限制,各轴必须在其可行空间内运动,尤其是旋转轴。以工作台双回转型机床为例详细分析五轴机床旋转轴的可行空间,建立了刀位数据与机床运动轴的关系,完成后置处理算法的研究,生成满足机床可行空间的G代码。由于五轴机床在三个平动轴的基础上增加了两个旋转轴,在五轴加工中引入了非线性运动误差,严重影响加工精度。本文阐述了非线性误差的产生原因,建立非线性误差的简化模型,提出一种非线性误差的控制策略,通过最短路径算法优化机床运动轴运动量,从工件参数曲面出发计算非线性误差,将过切和欠切现象考虑在内插入刀位点,控制非线性误差。
其他摘要Five-axis CNC machining technology is one important part of the underlying technology and advanced manufacturing technology. Its development has become an important symbol of measuring the level of technological development of machinery manufacturing enterprises and the one of national machinery manufacturing industry. Five-axis machining technology is widely used in machining complex surface workpieces, such as turbine blades, automotive and aerospace parts, and shows significant superiority in improving processing efficiency and accuracy. Due to complex shape and high precision of complex surface parts, five-axis machining technology requires further research in aspects of high-speed and high-precision. Background with practical application and theoretical research, the paper mainly studies the trajectory optimization method of five-axis CNC machining systematically from the aspacts of CNC machining postprocess technology and the issue of non-linear error in five-axis machining.For three common types of five-axis CNC machine tools, the paper establishes kinematics model after studying their structural features and obtains machine motion coordinates formulas of all axes through analyzing kinematic transformations with rotation translation matrixes. Multiple solutions of rotary motion coordinates exist according to the types of machine tool structure. In the same time, every shaft, in particular the spin shafts, must move within its practicable space because of restriction to specific machine structures. Taking table tilting type machine as an example, the paper analyzes rotary axis practicable space of five-axis machine in detail, establishes the relationship between cutter lication data and tool axes, and completes the study of post-processing algorithm, generating G-code meetting machine feasible space.Due to the join of spin shafts, five-axis machining nonlinearity error is an inevitable problem. This paper describes the causes of nonlinearity error and establishes a simplified model. And then we propose a nonlinearity error control strategy, optimizing machine axes motion with the shortest path algorithm, calculating nonlinearity error starting from the workpiece surface and inserting cutter locations to control nonlinearity error by taking overcut and undercut into account.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/14784
专题装备制造技术研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
赵延国. 五轴数控加工轨迹优化方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2014.
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