SIA OpenIR  > 水下机器人研究室
7功能水下液压机械手轨迹规划研究
其他题名Research on trajectory planning of 7-function underwater hydraulic manipulator
曲风杰1,2
导师张竺英
分类号TP242.3
关键词7功能水下液压机械手 液压特性分析 五次多项式 三次b样条 梯度投影法
索取号TP242.3/Q86/2014
页数72页
学位专业控制工程
学位名称硕士
2014-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门水下机器人研究室
摘要随着人类对海洋研究的不断深入,海洋科学考察和海洋作业等活动越来越频繁。由于人类自身的限制,无法胜任这些海洋活动,水下机器人应运而生。水下机械手作为水下机器人最通用的作业工具,已经在各种水下机器人上广泛使用。由于当前水下机械手的控制方式以遥操作为主,其作业效果主要取决于操作人员的熟练程度。当搭载机械手的水下机器人悬浮作业时,水下机器人运动不稳定性使操作人员很难完成特定的作业任务。具有持续自主作业能力水下机器人已经成为水下机器人技术的研究热点。水下机器人获得持续自主作业能力,需研究水下机器人建模和控制技术、水下目标识别和定位技术、机器人在线轨迹规划技术等。本文重点研究内容为水下液压机械手在线轨迹规划,并假定水下目标的位置和姿态可以实时准确地获得。当水下机器人坐底作业时,作业目标相对水下机器人静止的;水下机器人悬浮作业时,作业目标相对水下机器人为动态变化的。针对这两种情况分别研究静态目标和动态目标的轨迹规划,具体内容如下:(1)针对一套7功能水下液压机械手,研究了其结构特点和流量速度特性,为轨迹规划提供理论基础。(2)详细介绍了机械手的坐标系建立方法和运动学建模方法,给出了机械手末端轨迹无姿态约束时冗余逆运动学方法和机械手末端有姿态约束时的逆运动学方法(几何法和欧拉角法的结合法)。针对7功能水下液压机械手作业特点,提出一种新的检验机械手自干涉方法。(3)对于水下机器人坐底作业模式下的机械手轨迹规划,使用五次多项式规划空间路径;对于水下机器人悬浮作业模式下的机械手轨迹规划,使用三次B样条曲线规划空间动态轨迹,并提出了一种新的控制点调节方法,即最大化内部控制点间距形成近似最短时间轨迹。两种空间轨迹均通过梯度投影法获得优化的关节空间轨迹,梯度投影法优化因子为连续函数,提高轨迹追踪精度兼顾优化效果。(4)仿真和实验验证了机械手轨迹规划方法的可行性和有效性。
其他摘要With the further research on marine, human marine activities such as marine scientific explorations and operations are more and more frequent. However, people couldn’t be competent to these marine activities directly because of the limitation of human beings. Underwater vehicle arises at this historic moment. As the most universal underwater working tool, underwater manipulator has been widely used in all kinds of underwater vehicles. But the current common control mode of underwater manipulator is tele-operation, so that the working performance of underwater manipulator mainly depends on the operators’ operation proficiency. When underwater vehicle is hovering under water, its motion is unstable. It is difficult for operators to accomplish a specific task using underwater manipulator. Underwater vehicle that possesses autonomous operation ability have become one research hotspot in the underwater vehicle technologies.To realize underwater vehicle’s autonomous operation ability, it is necessary to study underwater vehicles modeling and control technology, underwater target identification and positioning technology, manipulator online trajectory planning technology and so on. This paper mainly studies underwater manipulator online trajectory planning, and assumes that the underwater target’s position and attitude can be accurately obtained in real time. When underwater vehicle is locating at the bottom of the sea, it is stationary relative to underwater unmoving target; when underwater vehicle is hovering under sea, underwater target is dynamically changing relative to underwater vehicle. To the both above cases, this paper has studied underwater manipulator’s trajectory planning for the static and dynamic target, respectively. The main contents of this paper are organized as follows:(1) The structure characteristics of the 7-function underwater hydraulic manipulator are proposed, then the rate characteristics of servo value hydraulic flow and joint angular velocity are discussed. All these will provide theoretical basis for underwater manipulator trajectory planning.(2) The methods for establishing manipulator coordinate system and kinematics model are introduced in detail. The redundant inverse kinematics has been applied when manipulator end-effector has no attitude constraint, and the combination of geometric method and Euler angles method has been chosen as the inverse kinematics method when manipulator end-effector has attitude constraint. According to the structure characteristics of the 7-function underwater manipulator, a new method is put forward to inspect manipulator interference.(3) Quintic polynomial curve is used to complete underwater manipulator trajectory planning in working space when underwater vehicle is locating at the bottom of the sea; cubic B-spline curve is used to solve underwater manipulator dynamic trajectory planning in working space when underwater vehicle is hovering under sea. This paper proposes a new control points’ adjustment method, namely maximizing internal of control points, to achieve approximate minimum time path. Gradient projection method is used to track both working space trajectories and obtains optimized joint space trajectories. Continuous optimization factor function is applied in gradient projection method and improves the trajectory tracking accuracy and the optimization effect of joints angle.(4) Simulation and experiment verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of underwater manipulator trajectory planning methods.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/14811
专题水下机器人研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
曲风杰. 7功能水下液压机械手轨迹规划研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2014.
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