The invention relates to food detection equipment and particularly provides an appearance on-line vision detection and classification system of red dates, which includes: a sequencing apparatus, a roller conveyor belt apparatus, an on-line detection apparatus and a reject and classification apparatus. The sequencing apparatus, the on-line detection apparatus and the reject and classification apparatus are arranged on the roller conveyor belt apparatus in a conveying direction successively. Red dates are fed into a bucket of the sequencing apparatus and are sequenced thereby so that the red dates fall on the roller conveyor belt apparatus orderly. The on-line detection apparatus detects and classifies the red dates and the reject and classification apparatus rejects and classifies red dates of which the appearance has defects. The system can tidily sequencing the red dates, can automatically detect the appearance of the red dates by means of the on-line detection apparatus and can reject unqualified red dates and classify qualified red dates. The system can solve problems of large consumption of labor intensity, low detection efficiency and low accuracy in the manual appearance detection of the red dates well.