The invention relates to a video target tracking master-slave standby system and method. The system comprises a video signal collection module, an FPGA module, a master DSP module and a control console which are connected in sequence. The system further comprises a standby DSP module which is connected with a preprocessing module. When the master DSP module carries out data processing and tracking, data and algorithmic procedure parameters are backed-up to the standby DSP in real time; when master and standby switching conditions are met, the standby DSP module is switched to be master DSP module, and the master DSP module function is executed. According to the video target tracking master-slave standby system and method, the system reliability can be improved, the complete system monitoring function can be achieved, the rapid master-standby switching ability is achieved, and the application range is wide.