Study for the existing image quality assessment methods can not effectively evaluate all types of image distortion, and large amount of calculation problems. This paper propose a new full reference image quality assessment method based on edge structure similarity inspired by the human visual system. Considering the image gradient sensitivity is different when observing different distortion image, the method compute the sum of horizontal gradient absolute value and vertical gradient absolute value by Prewitt filter operator. then proposed two image quality evaluation criteria based on edge structure similarity: Image gradient structure similarity mean (GSSM) and Image gradient structure similarity standard deviation(GSSD).Experimental results on standard image database show that the GSSD methods is superior to GSSM method and existing full reference image quality assessment methods. It obtains high correlations with subjective quality evaluations and low calculation，and is more suitable for large-scale image quality assessment.