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题名: BigDog四足机器人关键技术分析
其他题名: Key technology analysis of BigDog quadruped robot
作者: 丁良宏
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
关键词: Big Dog四足机器人运动控制地形还原虚拟模型自主性智能性LS3机器人阿特拉斯机器
刊名: 机械工程学报
ISSN号: 0577-6686
出版日期: 2015
卷号: 51, 期号:7, 页码:1-23
收录类别: EI ; CSCD
产权排序: 1
项目资助者: 国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划,2011AA041001) ; 中科院博士后基金资助项目
摘要: 对Big Dog四足机器人的核心技术进行分析,适应复杂地形是Big Dog的设计主线。提高横、纵自由度联动能力是Big Dog结构设计主要突破点。机体重心颠簸起伏、机体重心自扰动等不良运动特性是四足机器人控制难度大的主要原因。液压动力系统的构成和优点将被剖析,解决腿类移动装置的驱动问题是液压系统研发的根本目的。支撑腿打滑及俯仰和横滚角度是否过大作为监测机体运动安全状态的参数。惯导和关节编码器可检测机身与肢体的状态,借助压力传感器可还原落足点地形,三者合一可构建虚拟模型。借助虚拟模型可求算机体重心等关键控制处理中间参数,运动控制系统可实施粗略的动作预演及精确的运动学和动力学规划。规划模型与样机模型的偏差作为反馈值实施闭环控制。建立以三维激光扫描仪和双目视觉为主的导航系统,视觉地形还原功能可帮助LS3安全跨越岩石地形,软件系统将各种基本功能整合为有机的整体。机器人的自主性与智能性被讨论,利用Big Dog/LS3与好奇号火星探测器作对比并加以分析。Big Dog目前存在的几个主要问题:液压系统无法瞬时大幅增压、机械传动各种损伤、仿生设计的不彻底性。LS3机器人针对Big Dog的不足,多个改进环节被分析。猎豹、野猫、Petman等机器人被简要分析。阿特拉斯双足机器人借助虚拟模型可实现机械臂碰撞保护功能,遭受外力撞击可迅速恢复平衡状态。
英文摘要: The core technology of the BigDog quadruped robot is analyzed. Adapting to the rough terrain is the main design clues of the BigDog. Improving horizontal and vertical degrees of freedom linkage ability is the main innovation of structure design. Not good motion characteristics, such as robot's center of gravity ups and downs and self disturbance are the main reasons for being difficult to control. The components and advantage of the hydraulic power system are analyzed. Solving the driver problem of legged vehicles is the fundamental goal of the hydraulic system development. Supporting leg slipping or not, pitch and roll angle of the body too large or not are the main parameters as monitoring robot's movement condition. IMU and joint encoder can detect the state parameters of the body and limbs. Terrain of foot placement can be restored by pressure sensor. Three-in-one can build a virtual model. By the virtual model, robot's center of gravity and other key control process parameters can be calculated. At the same time, locomotion control system can do action drill roughly and accurate planning of kinematics or dynamics. The deviation of planning and prototype model is taken as the feedback for closed-loop control. LS3 constructs the navigation system of three-dimensional laser scanner and binocular vision as the main. LS3 can stride across rocky terrain by visual terrain reconstruction. Software system can integrate all the basic functions as an organic whole. Autonomy and intelligence of robot are discussed. BigDog/LS3 and Curiosity Mars Rover are compared and analyzed. BigDog has three big problems currently: instantaneously unable to increase hydraulic value significantly, all kinds of damage in mechanical transmission, bionic design not thoroughness. For the inadequacies of BigDog, several improvements are analyzed on the LS3. Petman, Cheetah and Wildcat robot are briefly analyzed. Atlas biped robot has crash protection function and can recovery equilibrium status quickly after external force hitting by virtual model.
语种: 中文
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内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/16210
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_期刊论文

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