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题名: AUV浮力调节系统及深度自适应控制研究
其他题名: Research on the Variable Buoyancy System and Adaptive Depth Control for AUV
作者: 王雨
导师: 郑荣
关键词: 自主水下机器人 ; AMESim液压系统 ; 活塞缸式浮力调节 ; 油囊式浮力调节 ; 深度控制 ; 模糊自适应PID控制
索取号: TP273.2/W38/2015
页码: 77页
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2015-05-26
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 海洋信息技术装备中心
中文摘要: 随着人类对自然资源的日益开发,各种各样的水下设备被人类研发并应用到对海洋的探索当中,其中自主水下机器人(AUV)的研发和应用最为广泛。由于海洋环境的变化导致AUV在航行时产生重力和浮力的不平衡,从而影响其工作性能。为解决这一问题需要为AUV配置浮力调节装置(VBS),它的作用主要是根据海洋环境的变化以及AUV的自身特性和工作要求,调节AUV的浮力或者重力使其达到期望的工作状态。由于海洋环境的模糊复杂性和AUV航行过程中的非线性,采用常规的被动控制很难实现较好的控制效果,针对上述问题本文研制了两套浮力调节装置,并提出了基于浮力调节系统对AUV进行深度控制的模糊自适应PID控制算法,主要研究内容如下:(1)在国家自然科学基金项目的支持下,依据项目要求的设计指标,提出两套浮力调节设计方案。方案一是活塞缸式浮力调节装置,该装置是利用活塞缸吸排海水实现浮力调节的功能。方案二是油囊式浮力调节装置,该装置是通过油液在耐压油箱和油囊之间来回流动,使油囊体积发生变化,从而实现浮力调节的功能。分别对两套设计方案建立浮力调节装置的三维模型、对装置校核、设计液压系统、利用AMESim对液压系统建模进行仿真分析。(2)对比并分析上述两种浮力调节方案,分析结果表明活塞缸式浮力调节装置质量轻、体积小、精度高。以此为基础开展了基于活塞缸式浮力调节装置的AUV深度控制技术研究,研究结果表明模糊自适应PID控制在调节速度、超调量及抗干扰性方面具有很大的优越性。(3)对活塞缸式浮力调节装置进行实验验证,其主要目的是校核浮力调节的精度并验证装置在空载和加载条件下的工作性能。空载条件下对系统的调试,主要包括液压系统的油液堵塞和泄露检测、传感器精度测试,以及装置在空载条件下的工作性能等。加载实验主要是测试浮力调节系统的耐压能力,以及在不同水压下活塞缸的行走速度,验证浮力调节是否满足工作要求。
英文摘要: Various kinds of underwater equipments are created to facilitate the increasing exploration of the marine resources, among which the marine robots such as Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) are the most widely used. The changes in the marine environment lead to an imbalance of gravity and buoyancy for the AUV, which affect their working performance. To address this problem, variable buoyancy systems (VBS) are developed. Based on the changes in the marine environment as well as the self-characteristic and job requirements of AUV, VBS adjust the buoyancy or gravity of the marine equipments such that the required working conditions could be reached. However, due to the complexity underwater environment and nonlinearity, conventional passive controllers are not good enough. In this paper, two kinds of variable buoyancy systems and buoyancy-based regulation system are developed to control the depth of AUV. The main contributions are summarized as following:First, according to the working environment, two variable buoyancy systems with different parameters and specifications are developed. Scheme 1 is a piston-cylinder-based variable buoyancy system, which adjust the buoyancy through driving the piston cylinder to absorb or expulse sea water. Scheme 2 is an oil-capsule-based variable buoyancy system, which adjust the buoyancy by the volume changes of the oil capsule due to the back and forth flowing of the fluid between the pressure tank and the oil capsule. Also the three-dimensional models establishment, intensity examinations, hydraulic system design and simulation analysis of the two schemes are done, respectively. Then, comparison between the above two buoyancy regulating devices is conducted. The results show that the piston-cylinder-based variable buoyancy system have a characteristic of light weight, small size and high accuracy. After that, the depth control of the AUV with the piston-cylinder-based variable buoyancy system is further studied. We conclude that the fuzzy adaptive PID control has great advantages in the regulation speed, overshoot and anti-disturbing.Finally, experiments on free load/loaded conditions of the piston-cylinder-based variable buoyancy system are conducted. The main purposes are accuracy verification and testaments on loaded conditions. On free load conditions, hydraulic system feasibility, the accuracy of the liner displacement sensor and the platform working performance are examined. Then the experiments on loaded conditions, including pressure endurance capability, moving velocity of piston in different pressure to check whether it meet the parameters and specifications requirements.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/16733
Appears in Collections:海洋信息技术装备中心_学位论文

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