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工业无线网络关键技术研究及协议软件的设计与实现
其他题名Research on Key Techniques for Industrial Wireless Networks and Protocol Software Design and Realization
李世兴1,2
导师王宏
分类号TP311.52
关键词工业无线网络 时间同步 传输时延 路由 Wirelesshart
索取号TP311.52/L34/2014
页数106页
学位专业机械电子工程
学位名称博士
2014-11-28
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门其他
摘要工业无线网络是无线传感器网络在工业领域的一项应用。作为近年来兴起的新型的工业信息获取技术,工业无线网络以易安装、易维护、低成本以及部署灵活等优势,成为了工业应用中极具吸引力的通信解决方案。国际上,以艾默生、西门子、ABB为代表的众多自动化厂商纷纷推出了自己的工业无线产品。工业无线网络已成为降低工业测控系统成本、扩展应用范畴的重要技术手段,具有广泛的应用前景。工业应用对通信的实时性、确定性、可靠性、安全性等方面有着苛刻要求。然而,无线通信技术由于信道的共享特性、高误码率和易受干扰等弊端,要在工业领域成功应用依然面临诸多挑战,这也成为制约工业无线网络大规模应用的主要原因。虽然已有相关产品面世,但工业无线网络关键技术作为各厂商核心技术机密并未公开,依然有众多的问题亟待研究解决。本文针对工业无线网络需求强烈的关键技术进行了研究,主要的研究内容和贡献包括以下几个方面:首先,关于时间同步算法的研究。基于TDMA机制,利用闭环反馈控制的思想,提出了TSLA时间同步算法,创新性地利用时隙长度微调的方法,实现了网络同步报文低开销情况下,网络节点间高精度的时间同步。针对时隙定时器不能直接进行小数计数调整的难题,设计了时隙间隔调整的小数等价算法,确保时隙长度微调的高度精确。通过实验验证,证明本文提出的时间同步算法TSLA以及时隙间隔调整小数等价算法在不同的时间同步机制下都可有效提高同步精度,在同步周期为30秒的情况下,网络节点间时钟偏差控制在60微秒以下,满足了TDMA机制对网络中不同节点之间高精度时间同步的需求。其次,工业无线网络实时性的建模与研究。利用网络演算理论,采用输入输出线性化处理的方法,建立了TDMA机制下数据传输时延的确定性模型,得出了传输时延的最大边界解析表达式,解决了已有研究当中采用韦伯斯特公式对TDMA机制建模不准确的问题。通过模型仿真结果与物理实验数据对比,证明本文建立的模型较好地反映了实际工业无线网络时延的特性。利用该模型做进一步仿真分析,得出了网络时延与突发数据量、超帧周期、时隙内部传输段占比、传输跳数等参数之间的关系。分析得到的结果对网络时隙、超帧设计以及拓扑优化有重要的指导作用。再次,开展了路由算法的研究。针对当前BFS算法中,以RSSI值作为选路唯一标准而造成的路由可靠度不高的问题,建立了工业无线网络的有向图模型,提出了R-Dijkstra路由算法。该算法通过引入冗余参数 和平滑因子 ,在保证了路由路径冗余的条件下,在选下一跳节点时,综合考虑了可选邻居的RSSI值和端到端路径可靠度两个因素,以实现本节点数据传输可靠性的提高。另外,该算法使用Dijkstra作为优化内核,实现了路径最优。利用典型应用案例对算法功能和有效性进行了验证,通过实际组网测试,证明本文提出的R-Dijkstra算法效果要优于BFS算法。以上工业无线网络关键技术的研究成果,成功应用在了WirelessHART产品的开发过程当中,研究成果对开发过程中的关键、难点问题起了很大的指导作用。
其他摘要Industrial wireless network is a new application of wireless sensor network in the industrial field. As a new industrial information access technology in recent years, industrial wireless networks become attractive communication solutions for industrial applications due to the features such as easy to install, easy to maintain, low cost, deployment flexibility and other advantages. Many international automation manufacturers including Emerson, Siemens and ABB have launched their own industrial wireless products. Industrial wireless networks have become important technical mean to reduce costs and extend the scope of application of industrial measurement and control systems. Industrial Wireless networks will have a bright future for industrial applications. Industrial applications have strict requirements on real-time ability, certainty, reliability, security, and other aspects of network QoS. However, due to the shared nature of wireless communication technology channel, high error rate and susceptible to interference and other defects, wireless technology successfully applied in the industrial field still faces many challenges. This challenges have become constrain for large-scale wireless networks used in industrial applications. Although some products have come out, but key technologies as commercial secrets are not public. There are still many problems to be studied and solved. In this paper, aiming at the strong demand for industrial wireless network key technologies, the major research contents and contributions include the following aspects: First, research on time synchronization algorithm. Based on TDMA mechanism, with the idea of closed-loop feedback control, TSLA synchronization algorithm is proposed, innovatively using the method of slot length micro-adjustment, network nodes realize highly accurate time synchronization under the status of low network overhead.. Aiming at the trouble of that the timer cannot adjust decimal count be directly, slot spacing adjustment algorithm is designed to be equivalent the decimal adjust, so that slots length adjustment is highly accurate. Experiments show that TSLA synchronization algorithm in this paper and slot spacing adjustment algorithm are effective. These algorithms can greatly improve the accuracy of synchronization, control clock error in 60 microseconds under 30 second synchronization period, satisfying the demand of TDMA. Second, study and modeling on real time of industrial wireless network. Using network calculus and input-output linearization method, TDMA system data transmission delay of deterministic model is established, and maximum boundary analytical expression of the transmission delay is obtained, overcoming the problem of Webster model for TDMA. By model simulation results and physical experiments, confirmmig the correction of the model. By the result of model simulation, the relationship of network delays with burst data amount, super frame period, the percentage of data transfer in a time slot and transfer hops are obtained, showing the parameters’ important influence on the network real time ability. The result can guide the network design and optimization. Third, the research on routing algorithm. Aimming at the problem of RSSI as the only route selection standard in BFS algorithm, directed graph model for industrial wireless networks is established. Aiming at routing redundancy requirements, the paper has proposed R-Dijkstra routing algorithm, by introducing redundancy parameters r and averaging factor. Under the premise of route redundancy, the optimal paths are calculated out, considering the RSSI value and reliability from end to end. Using a typical application case test functionality and using experiments show that the effectiveness of R-Dijkstra algorithms is better than BFS. Key technologies research results on the wireless network industry above are successfully applied to the WirelessHART product development process, which has played an important role in solving the key and difficult problems in the product development process.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/16734
专题其他
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李世兴. 工业无线网络关键技术研究及协议软件的设计与实现[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2014.
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