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基于成本控制的刀具管理方法研究
其他题名Research on the Method of Tool Management Based on Cost Control
李冬1,2
导师彭慧 ; 刘昶
分类号F275.3
关键词刀具 成本控制 库存模型 调度 分布估计算法
索取号F275.3/L31/2015
页数58页
学位专业机械电子工程
学位名称硕士
2015-05-26
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门数字工厂研究室
摘要刀具作为重要的制造资源,贯穿了从产品设计到制造的整个流程。随着制造业自动化的不断发展,制造系统对先进性刀具的依赖性不断增强,刀具成本占整个制造成本比例不断提高。所以从成本角度出发对刀具的全生命周期进行优化对降低制造成本,提高制造企业竞争力有很重要的意义。本文从刀具库存和刀具调度两个角度出发对刀具的成本控制进行了分析研究,分别建立了基于成本的刀具生命周期库存模型和刀具调度模型为刀具管理过程中的成本控制提供了理论依据,此外提出了改进的紧致遗传算法对本文中提出的模型进行优化,为实际应用提供了可行的方法。 刀具由于通过修复可以重新投入使用,使得刀具库存与传统的静态库存具有较大的区别,本文以刀具生命库存为对象,根据刀具生命库存理论及刀具本身特性考虑了生产需求不确定,采购周期等不确定因素,并在此基础上将刀具缺货成本首次融入刀具成本模型中重新建立了基于生命周期的刀具库存成本模型,通过一系列的系统仿真验证了模型与实际刀具成本的符合度。 传统的刀具管理系统由于缺少与车间其他信息系统之间的联系,容易因为刀具准备不足而导致停产停工损失。本文提出了刀具需求计划系统,建立起刀具管理系统与生产计划、工艺规划之间的关系,并分别提出了确定加工订单所需要的最小刀具集合和不影响工件加工的刀具集合方法;车间调度领域目前的重点在工件流的调度而对于刀具等工具流的调度理论上较为薄弱,在分析车间刀具流调度特点的基础上,综合考虑刀具调度过程中产生的成本要素,并结合柔性生产车间的实际情况,建立了时效限制下基于成本的刀具调度模型。 最后介绍了分布估计算法的主要思想和算法框架,并详细描述了分布估计算法中紧致遗传算法的流程和特点,针对标准紧致遗传算法的缺点,提出了相应的改进措施。利用改进的紧致遗传算法对基于成本的刀具库存模型和基于成本的刀具调度模型进行了优化,对算法参数的影响进行了仿真分析,并和其他算法进行了对比分析,验证了算法的正确性和先进性。
其他摘要As an important manufacturing resource, the cutter throughout the whole product flow from product design to manufacturing. In recent years, with the constant improvement of automation in the manufacturing industry, manufacturing and processing technology's dependence on advanced tool becomes stronger which lead to the tool costs occupying the proportion of manufacturing costs rising constantly. According to statistics, tool cost is about 25%~30% of the general manufacturing cost. Among them, the direct tool cost is about 4% of machining cost and the indirect cost associate with the tool inventory (including order cost, holding cost, grinding cost, as well as the tool shortage cost) is about double or three times of the direct costs. So the research of tool inventory theory has an important role in reducing business costs and improving the competitiveness of enterprises. In article, the tool inventory cost model and the tool scheduling model have been built based on the cost control. The compact genetic algorithm has been improved and successfully used in optimization process about the tool inventory cost model and the cutter scheduling model. In addition that, a cutter requirements planning system has been built, which strengthen the links between the tool management system and other information system. Tool inventory has a large difference with the traditional static inventory since the tool can be reused by grinding. In this paper, according to the life characteristics of tool, the tool inventory cost model has been built by studying the using process of tool. The model takes all costs which includes the shortage cost in the product life cycle into account under the circumstances of demand uncertainty. The compact genetic algorithm is successfully used in the cost function optimization process. The reasonableness of the tool inventory cost model and the effectiveness of the compact genetic algorithm have been demonstrated by simulation results. Because of lacking of relation between the traditional tool management system and other workshop information systems, the production stop has been occurred frequently as the lack of tools. In article, a tool requirements planning system has been built, which establish the relationship between tool management system and production planning management and production process management system. In detail, methods are proposed to determine the minimum of cutting tool set which can finish the processing tasks or does not affect the work piece processing; The cutter flow real-time scheduling model based on cost control has been built through the analysis on the characteristics of the cutter flow scheduling of the flexible manufacture system, in which the different cost elements during the cutter scheduling have been included. The algorithmic framework and the main idea of the estimation of distribution has been introduced. In addition that, the mechanism of population generation and probability updating has been improved in the standard compact genetic algorithm(a kind of EDA)which accelerate the convergence rate of algorithm. At last, the effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm has been proved by simulation, comparing with other algorithms and the verification on the optimization on the tool inventory cost model and the cutter scheduling model.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/16738
专题数字工厂研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李冬. 基于成本控制的刀具管理方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2015.
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