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空间站对接与转位机构性能测试研究
其他题名Research on Capacity Test of Space Docking Mechanism and Redocking Manipulator
白鑫林1,2
导师徐志刚
关键词空间站对接与转位机构 地面试验 微重力模拟 承载性能测试
学位专业机械电子工程
学位名称硕士
2015-05-26
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门装备制造技术研究室
摘要空间站对接与转位机构可实现功能舱的对接、转位和再对接等过程,在空间站建设中发挥着重要作用。为了提高其在轨运行的可靠性,减少失控风险,需在地面模拟舱体的对接与转位过程,考核对接与转位机构的性能,这是保证空间站顺利组建的必经过程。在空间站对接与转位机构的地面试验中,对接机构间的六自由度失重运动模拟、转位机构的地面微重力实现方法、转位机械臂承载性能有效性测试及转位机构末端效应器的初始位姿设定方法都是地面模拟的难点和关键所在。 针对空间站对接与转位机构对接与转位性能地面试验台研制中存在的难点,本文提出使用组合模拟的方法来实现对接机构的空间六自由度失重运动,研究了基于气浮和柔性支撑的空间转位机构微重力实现方法,通过一种等效负载惯量模拟方式对转位机械臂的承载能力进行测试,设计出六自由度并联平台设定旋转基座与捕获连接机构之间的六维位姿,具体的研究内容如下: (1) 针对空间站对接与转位机构地面性能测试的对象、功能和地面转位试验的过程,阐述了地面试验台的试验原理,系统介绍了地面试验台的总体构成及各部分的结构和功能,通过实验舱模拟器的平面失重运动模拟和核心舱模拟器的垂向、俯仰和滚转失重运动,组合模拟了主、被动对接机构间的空间六自由度相对微重力运动; (2) 为再现转位机构的真实空间运行状态,设计了臂杆微重力模拟工装和捕获锥微重力模拟工装,并对其引入的附加质量、减载效率进行分析,推导了转位机械臂微重力模拟的共振耦合动力学方程,在此基础上对弹簧进行了设计,对臂杆微重力模拟工装气浮轴承的承载性能进行了理论分析和Fluent仿真; (3) 提出了一种基于等效惯量模拟的空间站转位机械臂承载性能测试方法,设计了一种基于气浮增速机构的惯量模拟器,并根据等效动力学原理建立了惯量模拟器等效负载数学模型。该方法减小了负载惯量模拟的体积,实现了空间机械臂承载性能的有效测试,仿真结果验证了测试方法与空间转位过程的一致性; (4) 针对转位机械臂末端效应器位姿设定要求,设计了六自由度并联Stewart机构,对其工作空间、与基座不发生干涉的距离和静力学进行了数学建模,编制了相应的搜索算法,并运用Matlab进行了仿真,通过控制变量法对各结构参数的影响进行了分析,得到了Stewart机构结构参数的设计步骤。
其他摘要Space station docking mechanism and redocking manipulator, achieving the process of docking, translocation and redocking of function module, play an important role in space station construction. In order to improve its reliability in orbit and reduce the risk of out of control, ground experimental platform is essential to simulate the process of docking and translocation of module and evaluate performance of docking mechanism and redocking manipulator before space station space station successful setting up. In ground test, the difficulties and keys are as follows: 6-DOF weightless movement simulation of active docking mechanism and passive docking mechanism, effective load capacity test of redocking manipulator and initial position and pose setting method of redocking manipulator end-effector. The combined simulation method is proposed to simulate relative 6-DOF space movement between docking mechanisms. A micro gravity balance approach of space redocking manipulator based on air-bearing and flexible support is researched. The load carrying capacity test is carried out by means of equivalent inertia load simulation. 6-DOF parallel mechanism is designed to establish displacement and orientation between revolving base and capture and connecting mechanism. The details of the research contents are summarized as follow: (1) In view of the test objects, functions and experiment process of translocation, test principle of ground experimental platform of space station docking mechanism and redocking manipulator is elaborated. The overall structure and various parts of the platform are systematically introduced. Plane weightlessness motion, realized by experiment module simulator, and the vertical, pitch and roll micro-gravity motion, provided by core module simulator, combinably simulate the relative 6-DOF space movement between docking mechanisms. (2) In order to simulate the real operating state of redocking manipulator, the microgravity simulation tools of redocking manipulator arm link and capture conic are designed. The mathematical model of additional inertia, load balance efficiency and resonance coupling of simulation tools are established. The spring is designed on the basis of the above analysis. The load capacity of air bearing of manipulator arm link simulation tool is theoretical analyzed and numerically simulated through Fluent. (3) A test method of space station redocking manipulator based on equivalent moment of inertia simulation is proposed. Inertia simulator is designed and mathematic model of equivalent load of inertia simulator based on equivalent dynamics theory is established. The method makes the volume of load inertia much smaller and can achieve valid load bearing performance test of space station redocking manipulator just as in space translocation. Simulation result shows that the method can achieve the consistency with space translocation. (4) According to the requirement of position and pose setting of redocking manipulator end-effector, a 6-DOF parallel Stewart mechanism is designed and the working space, non-interference distance with revolving base and statics equation are established. The corresponding searching algorithms are programmed and simulations are carried out through Matlab. The structural parameters design steps of Stewart mechanism is achieved through the analysis of their effects using control variable method.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/16767
专题装备制造技术研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
白鑫林. 空间站对接与转位机构性能测试研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2015.
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