SIA OpenIR  > 空间自动化技术研究室
轮足复合型爬壁机器人机构设计与性能分析
Alternative TitleMechanism Design and Performance Analysis of a Wall-Climbing Robot with Biped-Wheel Hybrid Locomotion
董伟光1,2
Department空间自动化技术研究室
Thesis Advisor王洪光
ClassificationTP242
Keyword爬壁机器人 轮足复合 动力学 吸附系统优化
Call NumberTP242/D67/2015
Pages125页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2015-05-22
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract本论文的研究内容围绕国家“863”计划项目“飞机壁面爬行探测机器人”(课题编号:2009AA04Z2171)和国家自然科学基金项目“飞机蒙皮检测机器人热力转换与振动的映射机理与实验研究”(课题编号:61179049)展开。以反劫机侦查应用为背景,通过飞机外壁面侦查爬壁机器人的研制,解决高性能移动机构设计、复合移动机构运动学动力学建模、爬壁机器人吸附力合理控制及吸附系统优化等相关理论问题。论文首先对爬壁机器人的国内外研究现状进行了深入分析,总结归纳了该领域的研究热点和难点问题。以此为基础,根据反劫机背景的特殊需求,开展相关研究工作,主要包括以下四个方面的内容:第一,对复合型移动机构设计方案及其正逆运动学建模方法进行研究。根据反劫机侦察任务对爬壁机器人提出的设计要求,以一种特殊设计的行星轮系机构为基础,提出一种新型轮足复合式移动机构设计方案,实现了移动机构运动快速灵活和越障能力强的高效复合。针对该轮足复合型移动机构的运动学求解问题,提出按运动模式进行建模的方法,同时引入附着面倾角等环境因素,该方法对具有壁面过渡功能的复合式移动机构具有很好的适应性。在逆运动学求解中,首先基于给定任务提出一种运动模式判断流程。针对复合运动模式逆运动学求解中的多解问题,提出了一种基于安全性考虑的求解优化方案。仿真试验结果显示该方法是可行有效的。第二,轮足复合型爬壁机器人动力学建模及吸附力分析。针对本文样机所采用的属于闭链机构的轮足复合型移动机构,提出一种基于运动等效原则的机构分拆方案。对分拆后的开链机构利用牛顿-欧拉算法进行动力学建模,获得了不同状态下关节的力和力矩。借助牛顿-欧拉动力学公式将爬壁机器人吸附力的影响因素提取出来,以典型运动失效的临界条件为约束函数,构建爬壁机器人不同倾角壁面上任意位姿任意运动状态下的吸附力学模型,获得了不同状态下吸附力的合理值,从而为吸附力大小的合理控制奠定了理论基础。第三,爬壁机器人负压吸附系统吸附特性分析。首先提出额定吸附力自重比和有效吸附力自重比的概念,作为负压式爬壁机器人吸附特性的评价指标,以此为基础梳理出吸附特性的优化方向。针对负压吸附系统难以建模的问题,提出基于热力学定律和N-S方程的负压吸附系统流场数学模型构建方法。利用该模型获得了吸附性能的变化规律和影响因素,同时在FLUENT仿真环境下对各影响因素进行验证。仿真结果表明所构建的吸附系统流场数学模型能够正确反映负压式爬壁机器人吸附性能的变化规律,可以为负压式爬壁机器人的结构设计及吸附性能优化提供依据和指导。第四,爬壁机器人实验室和现场实验研究。基于所设计的复合型移动机构进行样机系统的搭建,同时分别在实验室模拟环境和实际飞机外壁面环境下进行各项技术指标的测试。在样机测试的同时将本样机分别和一种典型腿足式爬壁机器人、一种典型轮式爬壁机器人进行运动性能对比。实验和对比分析显示,本论文所研制的轮足复合型爬壁机器人样机,不但满足设计目标,而且相对于单一移动机构的爬壁机器人实现了移动快速灵活和良好越障能力的高效结合,具备执行反劫机侦查任务的能力。
Other AbstractThe research in this paper is supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) under Grant 2009AA04Z2171, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61179049. Aimed for investigation in ant-hijacking missions, a wall-climbing robot is developed. At the same time, related theories problems are resolved, such as design of hybrid locomotion mechanism, kinematics and dynamics modeling of hybrid locomotion mechanism, reasonable control and optimization of adhesion system. After deep analysis to research status of wall-climbing robot both home and abroad, hot and difficult issues in related research is summarized. According to this analysis and the application background of anti-hijacking missions, four aspects of research work are engaged as follows:(1) Hybrid locomotion mechanism design and kinematics analysis. According to the application requirements, a design idea of biped-wheel hybrid locomotion mechanism, based on a special planetary gear train, is proposed and locomotion mode of this locomotion mechanism is presented, which equipped the robot with characteristics of fast moving speed and excellent obstacle negotiation capability at the same time. For the kinematics of the hybrid locomotion mechanism, a modeling method based on locomotion mode is proposed. In addition, the parameter of tilt angle of the wall is introduced to the kinematics expression, which is fit for wall-climbing robot with wall-transition capability. A judgment process of locomotion modes is constructed based on given task to solve the problem of coordination control of different locomotion modes in the inverse kinematics. Aimed at the multiple solution problems in the inverse kinematics, an optimization method is proposed due to the consideration of safety during the movements. The method proposed is verified through simulation of wall transition and the results show that it is feasible and effective for the hybrid locomotion mechanism.(2) Dynamics modeling and adhesion force analysis. Firstly, the locomotion mechanism of the robot including a structure of planetary-gear train is regarded as a closed loop mechanism that is split according to motion equivalence principle. Then, dynamics modeling using Newton-Euler method is built. With dynamics modeling and critical condition for motion failure as constrain function, the adhesion force model is built for the robot moving in arbitrary inclined surface. Then, the reasonable value for adhesion force required by the wall-climbing robot in different poses and states of motion is gained. The adhesion force model can provide a theoretical basis for reasonable control of adhesion force in various motion states.(3) Analysis of Adhesion Characteristics for negative-pressure adhesion system. The concept of rated load-weight ratio and effective load-weight ratio was first proposed as the evaluation criterion of adhesion performance. Then, ways for adhesion performance optimization of wall-climbing robot are summarized. Based on the laws of thermodynamics and N-S equations, mathematical models of the flow fields in the negative pressure adhesion system are built. Factors influencing adhesion performance in the mathematical models are analyzed and verified through simulation with the software tool FLUENT. Simulation results show that the mathematical models constructed can accurately reflect the changing rules of adhesion performance, and can provide guidance for the optimization of adhesion performance of wall climbing robot with negative pressure adhesion method.(4) Experimental study in laboratory and field environment. A prototype of the wall-climbing robot based on the design of biped-wheel hybrid locomotion mechanism is built and comprehensive tests for the technical indicators are performed in laboratory environment and field environment, respectively. Besides, we compare performance of the robot with a biped and a wheeled wall-climbing robot. Testing and contrast experiments prove that the robot realize effective combination of fast moving speed and excellent obstacle negotiation capability and is fit for the tasks of surveillance and reconnaissance in the field of anti-hijacking.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/16782
Collection空间自动化技术研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
董伟光. 轮足复合型爬壁机器人机构设计与性能分析[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2015.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
轮足复合型爬壁机器人机构设计与性能分析.(7282KB) 开放获取CC BYApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[董伟光]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[董伟光]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[董伟光]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.