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题名: 五功能水下电动机械手设计与控制研究
其他题名: Research on Design and Control of A Five-function Underwater Electric Manipulator
作者: 范云龙
导师: 张竺英 ; 张奇峰
关键词: 水下电动机械手 ; 电动直线缸 ; 腕转夹钳 ; 矩阵微分法 ; PID控制
索取号: TP241/F25/2015
页码: 68页
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2015-05-26
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 水下机器人研究室
中文摘要: 海洋蕴藏了大量的资源和能源,随着陆地资源日益紧缺,人类的可持续发展将越来越依靠海洋。水下机器人是开发利用海洋的重要装备,水下机械手作为核心作业工具,其性能决定了水下机器人的作业能力。水下液压机械手发展比较成熟,能够实现大负载,但支持系统庞大复杂,控制精度低,不适合应用于小型水下机器人;目前水下电动机械手大多都是关节直接驱动式的,负载低。水下电动机械手可以应用到包括自治水下机器人在内的中小型水下机器人上进行遥控作业甚至实现自主作业,因此更高负载能力的轻质量水下电动机械手将会有更广阔的应用前景。 面向深海中小型水下机器人作业需求,针对中等负载水下电动机械手的实现及关键技术进行了研究,论文的主要内容有: (1)设计出了一款中等负载五功能水下电动机械手。完成了机械手整体运动方案、电动直线缸模块和腕转夹钳节模块的设计,完成了机械手驱动方式和传动方式的选择以及密封件和零件材料的选择。机械手内部充油可实现深海作业,全伸长状态能够实现中等负载。 (2)采用D-H法建立了机械手运动学模型,给出了运动学正解和逆解,基于运动学模型对机械手运动空间进行了仿真;采用矩阵微分法建立了机械手末端位姿误差模型,并对位姿误差模型进行了仿真分析,仿真结果显示:所设计机械手末端理论上可以实现毫米级定位,关节角误差是影响末端位置误差的主要因素,可通过减小直线缸定位误差来提高机械手定位精度。 (3)搭建了水下电动机械手的控制系统,采用PID控制算法对电动直线缸模块、腕转夹钳模块进行了控制研究,实现了电动直线缸和腕转的位置控制,对控制系统还进行了正弦典型信号跟踪实验,实验表明控制系统具有一定的位置跟踪性能。对机械手进行了联动控制实验,验证了机械手的整体运动性能。 (4)对机械手进行了综合实验研究,验证了机械手的负载能力、深海模拟环境运动特性等主要性能,研究了机械手实际运动过程中的误差变化趋势及误差主要来源。
英文摘要: Marine reserves a lot of resources and energy, along with the increasing scarcity of land resources, sustainable development of human will rely on the ocean more and more increasingly. Underwater vehicle is an important equipment to develop marine, as the key tool of underwater vehicle, the manipulator’s performance determines the operational capability of the underwater vehicle. Underwater hydraulic manipulator has been developed mature and can achieve large load, but it need a large and complex support system and has low control accuracy, so it is not suitable for small underwater vehicle; Most of the current underwater electric manipulator is directly driven by joint, whose load capacity is too low to satisfy the operation of underwater vehicle. Underwater electric manipulator can be applied to small and medium underwater vehicle which include AUV to implement remote operations even realize independent operations. So underwater electric manipulator with light weight and higher load capacity will have a more broad application prospects. Aim to the demand of the small and medium underwater vehicle with deep sea operations, the realization and key technology of the medium-load underwater electric manipulator are researched in this paper. The main contents of the paper are organized as follows: (1)A five-function underwater electric manipulator is designed. Giving the overall movement program of the manipulator, the electric line cylinder module and the wrist turns and clamp module have been designed. Completing the choice of driving mode, transmission mode, sealing element and parts of material selection. The manipulator which has been designed can operate in deep sea with oil-filled and it can beat medium load in the state of full stretch. (2) D-H method is used to establish the kinematics model of the manipulator, and the kinematics positive and inverse solutions are gained. The motion space of the manipulator is simulated basing on the kinematics model. The matrix differential method is used to establish the end posture errors model of the manipulator, the simulation analysis is made for the end posture errors model. The results of simulation show that the end of the manipulator can achieve millimeter level positioning in theory and the main factor affect the end errors is the joint angle errors. The positioning accuracy of the manipulator can be improved by reducing the positioning error of the linear cylinder. (3)The manipulator control system is built. PID control algorithm is used to research the control of the electric linear cylinder module and wrist turns and clamp module which the position control of the line cylinder and the wrist is realized. The control system also has a sinusoidal signal tracking experiments which show that the control system has a certain position tracking performance. The manipulator linkage control experiment is carried out to verify the overall motion performance of the manipulator. (4) The comprehensive experiments are made to research the manipulator. The manipulator’s main performance including load capacity and movement characteristics in deep-sea simulation environment are verified. The trend of the manipulator error in the process of actual movement and the main sources of error are studied.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/16788
Appears in Collections:水下机器人研究室_学位论文

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