The applications of laser peening in many fields, such as high-cycle fatigue, corrosion protection, biomedical and precision forming, were summarized, and the advantages and pending problems of laser peening in the corresponding applications were discussed, and the application development trends were analyzed. In the high-cycle fatigue and corrosion protection field, the laser peening technology has been used in mass industrial production. In biomedical field, the laser peening technique has been developed toward industrial application. Laser peening for large panels forming has got small batch orders, and in the field of micro-electro-mechanical system, the application research of laser peening has also obtained good results which tends to practical application, so the application prospects are very optimistic. Meanwhile, the diversified development direction of laser peening equipment was indicated for the specific needs of different applications and development stages.