We studied a kind of common aerial aluminum alloy material, 6082 aluminum alloy, by laser shock processing (LSP) in this paper. This research forced on the effect of technology parameters on the micro-hardness peened by laser, including laser pulse width, signal pulse energy, the number of laser shocks, and the thickness of ablative layer. We designed an orthogonal experiment of process parameters of LSP, and the best technological parameters are obtained. On this basis, the best performance of the SLP of 6082 aluminum alloy is analyzed: Laser pulse width is 16 ns, and energy is 6 J when 6082 aluminum alloy is peened only once with the 0.2-mm thickness of absorption layer. According to the test results, we conclude that due to the low yield strength of 6082 aluminium alloy, the highest elastic level is also lower, thus the optimal value of the strengthen effect is low. When the power density is too large, it will influence the effect of LSP. The surface microhardness will also decrease.