The present invention relates to a protocol conformance testing system and method based on equipment and scene simulation. The testing system comprises a testing host computer, a testing transceiver, a tested device and a hand-held device. The concrete structure of the testing system comprises a user interaction module, a test set internal interpretive execution module, a test front-end interaction module and a test set support module. According to the testing method, a tested network is divided into four scenes according to different topological structures, and based on a conformance testing set of equipment life cycles, various types of tested devices are simulated by adopting all methods of positive testing, reverse testing and optional function testing. The testing method provides a standard testing tool for conformance of application of industrial wireless network equipment, systems and projects to industrial wireless communication protocol specifications such as WIA-PA, provides technical assurance for industrial wireless product certification and for equipment interconnection among different protocols of different manufacturers, and also provides reasonable advice for correcting errors for tested products in protocol implementation.