With the development of economy and society, the power industry runs through all areas and the demand for electricity is increasing. Smart grid has become a main trend with the development of the grid. As the component of the electricity market, electric price plays a lever effect invisibly. The real-time pricing strategy based on demand response is one of the essential technologies, which can achieve validity and reliability of the smart grid. Demand response and the real-time pricing were introduced. Research models and algorithms in domestic and overseas were summarized and analyzed systematically from the level of the demand and supply in both the users and the providers. The research challenges and possible real-time pricing strategy in the future smart grid were to be expected.