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基于FS-SEA的大柔性关节机械臂控制方法研究
其他题名Control Strategies for Manipulators with Ultra-Flexible Joints Based on FS-SEA
陈鹏1,2
导师李洪谊
分类号TP241
关键词力源串联弹性驱动器 大柔性关节机械臂 转子分离 解耦控制 柔顺控制
索取号TP241/C46/2015
页数142页
学位专业模式识别与智能系统
学位名称博士
2015-11-25
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门机器人学研究室
摘要本文以FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂为研究对象,对其控制方法中涉及的一系列关键性问题开展研究。首先研究了n关节串联机械臂的运动学模型以及机械臂的运动规划方法。对于冗余的n关节串联机械臂的运动学逆解,提出了几何求解遍历搜索、带有变放大系数的梯度投影校正法两种解决方案。对于机械臂的运动规划,提出采用5次多项式插值法规划机械臂的行程-时间函数曲线。之后基于空间算子代数法,针对利用谐波减速的FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂,提出了一种新的转子分离动力学建模方法。通过对柔性关节进行转子分离的特殊建模处理,使得柔性关节处的物理过程首次被明确地表达。转子分离模型也因其更加细致的建模而具有更准确的计算结果。然后对FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂的自由空间运动控制方法开展了研究。提出了一种改进的反馈计算力矩控制方法,在传统方法的基础上加入了自适应补偿项和对于加速度指令的低通滤波环节,分别改善了柔性机械臂系统对于参数误差和外部冲击的鲁棒性。由于FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂各自由度之间的耦合性非常强,本文又提出了一种新的基于多输入多输出(MIMO)系统的解耦控制方法。选择大柔性关节机械臂的关节输出角度和柔性机构的变形角度作为系统的状态量,并在解耦空间设计了新的反馈控制律,使提出的解耦控制方法实现了很高的轨迹跟踪精度和非常强的抗扰动能力。最后对FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂的力控制相关问题进行了研究。研究了柔性关节机械臂的外力检测方法,以及外力补偿方法。基于外力补偿方法,提出了FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂的两种柔顺控制方法:基于重力补偿的柔顺控制方法,以及基于阻抗在线设计的柔顺控制方法;能够实现所设计的机械臂刚度,并能够很好地实现机械臂碰撞固定障碍物时的柔顺动作。在外力实时检测的基础上,提出了大柔性关节机械臂的力跟随控制方法,使得机械臂末端能够对所施加的外力做跟随动作,实现人机协作。在实验部分,介绍了FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂实验平台的搭建情况及实验平台的各项参数。在实验平台上进行了一系列实验,包括FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂自由空间运动控制实验、柔顺控制实验、跟随控制实验。用实验验证了本文提出的各种理论方法的正确性和有效性。本文的研究工作丰富了柔性机械臂系统的研究内容,填补了FS-SEA大柔性关节机械臂控制方法研究的空白,为后续的研究提供了坚实的理论基础以及技术上的可借鉴之处。
其他摘要This dissertation researches on the ultra-flexible joint manipulators based on FS-SEA, and attempts to solve a series of key problems involved in their control methods. Firstly, the kinematic model of n-joint series manipulators and the motion planning methods are investigated. For the inverse kinematics of redundant n-joint series manipulators, the geometric solving – traversal search method and the gradient projection – calibration method with variable amplification coefficient are proposed. For manipulators’ motion planning, utilize 5-order polynomial interpolation method to plan the distance – time function curve of the task. After, for FS-SEA ultra-flexible joint manipulators with harmonic reducers, propose a novel rotor-separated dynamic modelling method based on spatial operator algebra. Through special modelling process of rotor separation for flexible joints, the physical mechanism at flexible joints is formulated for the first time. The rotor-separated model can also derive more accurate results because of its more detailed modelling. Then the free space motion control methods for FS-SEA ultra-flexible joint manipulators are studied. Propose an improved feedback computed torque control method, which adds in an adaptive compensation term and a low-pass filter link for acceleration commands, to improve the flexible manipulator systems’ robustness for dynamic parameter errors and external impacts respectively. Since the coupling between various DoFs of the FS-SEA ultra-flexible joint manipulator is very strong, this dissertation proposes a new decoupled control method based on multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO) systems. The joint output angles and the flexible mechanisms’ deformation angles are chosen as the system’s state quantities, and a new feedback control law is designed in the decoupled space, which makes the proposed decoupled control method achieve high tracking accuracy and very strong disturbance rejection ability. Finally, the issues about the force control of FS-SEA ultra-flexible joint manipulators are researched. Propose the external force detection method and the external force compensation method for the flexible manipulator. Based on the external force compensation, two compliance control methods for FS-SEA flexible manipulators are proposed: the compliance control method based on gravity compensation, and the compliance control method based on impedance on-line designing, which can achieve the desired stiffness of the manipulator, and can realize the compliant motion well when the manipulator collides with fixed obstacles. Based on the real-time detection of the external force, propose the force following control method of ultra-flexible joint manipulators, which enables the manipulator end to do following actions to imposed external forces and realizes man-machine collaboration. In the experiment section, introduce the construction of the experiment platform of FS-SEA ultra-flexible joint manipulators and various parameters of the experiment platform. Carry out a series of experiments with the platform, including the free space motion control experiment, the compliance control experiment and the following control experiment of the FS-SEA flexible manipulator. The correctness and effectiveness of the various theoretical methods proposed in this dissertation is verified through the experiments. The research work of this dissertation enriches research contents of flexible manipulator systems, fills in gaps in control method researches of FS-SEA ultra-flexible joint manipulators, and provides a solid theoretical foundation and technical lessons for following studies.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/17534
专题机器人学研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈鹏. 基于FS-SEA的大柔性关节机械臂控制方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2015.
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