Based on the analysis of optical transmission pipeline’s structure，it developed a specifical cleaning robot for the pipeline. It mainly introduced the cleaning robot control strategy and hardware design. This system is divided into visual system and robot control. Visual system is responsible for collecting data and dealing with data collected after calculating the offset of the robot; walking control is mainly composed of deviation and rudder control，forming a rudder angle as the controlled object of closed loop control system based on visual system，the deviation of real-time access to information through on-line real-time correction control algorithm，to eliminate constantly position deviation to follow the center line. In the process of walk straight， after the robot walking 10m，deviation from the center line is 1cm or less. The robot has simple structure，flexible control， system stability. It provides a platform for further research of optical transmission pipeline’s pollution control.