The invention discloses a navigation and positioning performance testing device and method for an autonomous mobile robot. The device comprises a testing base station, a mobile station and an off-line data analysis and processing system. The testing base station is constituted by a differential GPS base station, a data transmission transmitter and a power management module. The mobile station is composed of a GPS receiver module, a data transmission receiver, an on-line data acquisition and processing system and a power management module. The testing base station and the mobile station constitute a high-precision movement track testing hardware device, and motion path information data of the robot are recorded in real time. According to the method, the tested robot performs strict linear motion, self-spinning motion around the center and Z-shaped motion and follows a testing track constructed according to the international standard ISO-3888-1. Statistics and analysis are conducted on position information of the robot through the off-line data analysis and processing system, and robot navigation and positioning performance assessment is achieved. The navigation and positioning performance testing device and method have the advantages of being high in testing precision, good in dynamic performance and the like.