A spherical target identification and localization method was proposed for typical target identification and positioning problems of robonuant. Target recognition was realized by using objective color and shape characteristics. The monocular vision ball localization formula was derived with spatial projective geometry method. Then the hardware experiment environment was established to conduct the monocular camera positioning test, binocular stereovision positioning test and visual positioning fusing TOF cameras and color cameras test. By comparing and analyzing the test results of these real experiments and the simulations, their applicable conditions were obtained. These applicable conditions could serve as a reference for the engineering applications.