The invention relates to the field of deep-sea cables, and specifically relates to a deep-sea oil-filled cable quick butt-joint device. The device comprises a quick insertion sleeve, a quick insertion core, a locking cap and a hoop. The quick insertion sleeve includes a socket assembly and a sleeve. The quick insertion core includes a plug assembly and a core tube. The front end of a base of the socket assembly is equipped with a socket. The front end of a base of the plug assembly is equipped with a plug. Connection of the circuit in an oil-filled cable is realized through butt joint of the socket and the plug. The front ends of the bases of the socket assembly and the plug assembly are each sleeved with a sealing ring. The sleeve is internally provided with a raised inner hole surface. The core tube is internally provided with a raised inner cavity surface. The socket assembly opens or closes an oil path as the sealing ring moves in or out of the inner hole surface of the sleeve along with the base, and the plug assembly opens or closes an oil path as the sealing ring moves in or out of the inner cavity surface of the core tube along with the base. The front ends of the sleeve and the core tube are fixedly connected by the locking cap, and the rear ends of the sleeve and the core tube are each connected with an oil path. Quick butt joint of an oil-filled cable is realized, and electrical connection is facilitated.