In intelligent transport system and robot autonomous navigation system, for the road and navigation line extraction with shadow environment, a road and visual navigation line extraction algorithm is proposed based on illumination invariant image segmentation and vote functions. First, a color illumination invariant image is acquired using orthogonal decomposition method. And then, after the segmentation of the image, the road region is extracted through the structure of the vote function and road criterion. Finally, the navigation line is detected by scanning path location and the least squares fitting. The proposed method does not need a large number of samples to learn. Experiments prove that the proposed algorithm has obvious advantages compared with the two existing algorithms in detection accuracy and speed and its complexity is relatively low. The proposed algorithm can effectively solved the road and navigation line extraction under the shadow environment.