The invention relates to an optical dynamic imaging system based on a microlens modified scanning probe. The optical super-resolution dynamic imaging system comprises a scanning probe microscope and a microlens. The microlens is arranged on the probe of the scanning probe microscope. A nano-positioning mechanism of the scanning probe microscope is provided with a sample bench. An optical microscope of the scanning probe microscope is arranged above the probe and the sample bench. A method comprises the steps that: the microlens is fixed on the probe of the scanning probe microscope; a working plane of the optical microscope is focused to an image plane of the microlens; and the position of the probe is fed back in real time by the scanning probe microscope, and the optical microscope simultaneously obtains a super-resolution image represented by the microlens and sends the super-resolution image to a computer for displaying. According to the invention, optical super-resolution dynamic observation and imaging are realized, the problems of visual observation and positioning on a nano object in a scanning imaging initial stage are effectively solved for the scanning probe microscope, and the real-time visual feedback problem in the nano-operation process is solved, so that the efficiency of nano-observation and nano-operation is improved.