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焦平面红外探测器读出电路信号增强技术研究
其他题名Research on Signal Enhancement for Readout Integrated Circuit of IRFPA Detectors
王霄1,2
导师史泽林 ; 徐保树
关键词焦平面红外探测器 读出电路 信噪比 模拟累加 测试系统
学位专业模式识别与智能系统
学位名称博士
2016-11-30
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门光电信息技术研究室
摘要通过增强红外焦平面成像灵敏度来提高红外弱小目标探测对大气环境及红外对抗隐身的适应性,是光电技术领域的重要课题。当前国际上有两条研究路线,一是制备高量子效率的红外像素器件;二是设计高性能读出电路抑制探测器噪声,通过提高信噪比提高灵敏度。本文从红外读出电路有关基础问题出发,深入分析了主流焦平面红外探测器光电转换到信号调理、传输过程中噪声形成及影响机理,提出了像素级辐射能量累加的策略,设计并实现了具有像素级累加功能的新型长波红外读出电路结构及其优化,显著提高了探测器信噪比。 第一章介绍论文的研究背景和意义,对焦平面红外探测器及其读出电路的国内外研究现状和发展趋势进行了说明。第二章介绍基本知识,对红外成像系统、热敏型/光子型探测器、读出电路做了分层次介绍,重点阐述了直接注入式DI、电容反馈跨导CTIA、电流镜积分CMI等主要类型的读出电路结构特点,并进行了原理和性能分析对比。第三章是相关双采样电路分析方法,提出了一种针对相关双采样电路的噪声分析方法。该方法通过建立频域噪声模型,结合电路动作时序,可以有效地分析采样操作与滤波效应联合对噪声传输的影响。利用该方法分别给出了一种小面积相关双采样电路和一种具有失调自消功能的相关双采样电路的噪声与设计参数的函数表达式。第四章是焦平面红外探测器噪声形成与影响机理,分析了探测器中噪声源的特性,针对目前主流的读出电路结构,研究了光电转换到信号调理、传输过程中噪声的形成,阐明了积分过程和相关双采样过程对噪声的影响机理;给出了主流读出电路关键设计参数与噪声性能的优化关系。第五章是信号增强读出电路设计,提出了实现像素级辐射能量累加策略的读出电路结构。分析了模拟累加操作抑制噪声的原理,在分析得出读出单元面积、功耗对噪声性能和响应速度制约关系的基础上,设计了一种具有像素级模拟累加功能的新型信号增强读出电路,并利用亚阈值技术优化了单元电路的功耗;在性能仿真验证基础上,设计了基于0.18μm CMOS工艺的信号增强读出电路单元电路的版图,完成了验证级单像素读出电路的制备。第六章是焦平面红外探测器测试方法研究,基于HGH测试平台给出了测试所需预处理接口电路的设计方法与焦平面红外探测器逻辑控制信号的设计方法。学位论文是在中科院成像制导技术国防重点实验室基金和装备发展部精确制导技术领域重点项目支持下完成的。所提出的基于辐射能量累积的高灵敏度探测器信号增强读出电路设计方法,不仅适用于长波制冷型的焦平面红外探测器,也可推广至激光、微波等非成像体制的探测传感器,方法具有普适性。
其他摘要It is an essentially key task in the field of optoelectronic technology to improve the adaptability of infrared dim target detection to atmospheric environment and infrared countermeasure by enhancing the sensitivity of infrared focal plane imaging. There are two research approaches in the world nowadays, one is the to develop infrared pixel devices with high quantum efficiency; the other is to design high performance readout integrated circuit(ROIC) to suppress noise from detectors, improving the signal to noise ratio to enhance the sensitivity. The thesis starts from the basic problems related with ROIC, deeply analyzed the process of photoelectric conversion, signal processing and transferring and the mechanism of noise formation and transmission for main infrared focal plane array(IRFPA) detectors, put forward the pixel level radiation energy accumulation strategy, designed and implemented a new ROIC unit with analog accumulation function aimed at long wave infrared detection, which has the ability to improve the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) to a large extent. Chapter I introduces the research background and significance, and summarizes the research status and trend in the field of IRFPA and ROIC at home and aboard. Chapter II detailedly introduces the related and fundamental researches in the field of ROIC design. As the subject that ROIC works for, infrared imaging system is firstly introduced into its every constituent part and operation principals, then varieties of types of IRFPA detectors are analyzed, the point of which contains performance parameters of IRFPA detectors and ROIC. In addition, analysis and comparisons of features between different types of ROIC based on circuit structure are given. Chapter III provides the research on analysis method of correlated double sampling(CDS) circuit, in which a new noise analysis method for CDS circuit design was put forward. The method effectively takes the influence on the noise transferring of sampling operation and low pass filtering jointly into consideration by combining the frequency domain noise model and circuit operation timing. The expressions of circuit design parameters to the output noise for a small area CDS circuit and a CDS circuit with offset canceling are obtained respectively. Chapter IV gives the research on mechanism of noise formation and influence. The characteristic of noise source involved in IRFPA detectors are analyzed. Aiming at mainstream IRFPA detectors, the process of photoelectric conversion, signal processing and transferring and the mechanism of noise formation and transmission are studied. The influence mechanism of the integration process and the correlated double sampling process on noise is clarified. The optimization relationship between key design parameters and noise performance of the mainstream ROIC is presented. Research on ROIC with signal enhancement function is conducted in chapter V. The principal of noise suppression utilizing accumulation operation is analyzed at first, then a new ROIC unit with analog accumulation function is proposed, which can be applied into IRFPA detectors to improve SNR, afterwards through analyzing each function that every constituent circuit module in ROIC unit works, the constraint relationship among noise performance, layout area and power dissipation due to design parameters of circuit modules is clarified, furthermore the optimization for the key operational amp is achieved by designing with subthreshold technology. On the basis of simulation verification, the layout of the proposed signal enhancement ROIC unit based on CMOS 0.18μm technology is designed, the implementation of which forsingle pixel is completed. Chapter VI carries out the research on test system for IRFPA detectors. Based on HGHIRFPA detector test-bench, methods of interface circuit design and logic control signal design are put forward. The degree thesis is supported by the laboratory fund of the National Defense Key Laboratory of Chinese Academy of Science and the project of Equipment Development Department. The proposed design method of ROIC for high sensitivity detectors based on radiation energy accumulation, is not only suitable for long wave cooled IRFPA detectors, can also be extended to laser detection sensor, microwave and other non imaging system, which is universal.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/19450
专题光电信息技术研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
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GB/T 7714
王霄. 焦平面红外探测器读出电路信号增强技术研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2016.
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