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基于ARM的小型AUV控制系统设计与实现
其他题名The Design and Implementation of Control System for Small Autonomous Underwater Vehicle based on ARM
王晓杰1,2
导师李硕
分类号TP273
关键词小型自主水下机器人 控制系统 Arm Linux 驱动移植
索取号TP273/W37/2016
页数55页
学位专业控制工程
学位名称硕士
2016-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门水下机器人研究室
摘要小型自主水下机器人(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle,AUV)环境适应性强、运动灵活,是海洋资源探测与环境观测的重要工具,已成为当今研究热门领域。但大部分小型AUV控制系统以X86架构处理器为核心,装配各功能板卡,致使集成度低、功耗较高、产品化和推广应用成为问题。针对上述问题,本文利用ARM Coretex-A9系列CPU接口丰富、处理速度快、功耗低的特点,设计了以Freescale的I.MX6Q处理器为核心,集成各功能模块的电路为硬件平台,嵌入式Linux操作系统为软件运行环境的小型AUV控制系统。在保证控制系统性能可靠的前提下,同时提高了系统集成度,降低了功耗。 考虑到小型AUV挂载传感器设备多,工作环境复杂、干扰强的情况,新的控制系统采用分布式与集中式相结合控制结构:电源与推进部分作为具有一定独立性的节点,控制器与节点间通过CAN总线通信;传感器设备则直接与控制器进行信息交互。硬件上系统主控制器设计为核心板加扩展板形式并集成各功能模块;软件上根据硬件电路设计对Linux内核进行裁剪与配置,对各模块进行Linux驱动移植与开发。这样在软硬件上都实现了可扩展的定制化设计。本文主要工作包括:(1)完成了对国内外小型AUV控制系统及嵌入式处理器发展现状调研。明确了设计基于ARM的小型AUV控制系统的意义与可行性。(2)根据小型AUV的控制系统需求,完成了基于I.MX6Q的小型AUV控制系统总体设计方案。控制器设计集成了以下模块:电源模块为核心板与扩展板供电;GPIO模块控制设备开关及电子舱内外漏水检测;串口及扩展模块与串口设备通信;网卡扩展模块与以太网设备通信;CAN接口电路与分布式节点通信;ADC模块用于深度计等模拟输出设备的信号采集,实现了硬件系统定制。(3)根据总体设计方案,完成了控制器各模块硬件电路设计。完成原理图与PCB图设计。文中对硬件电路设计的合理性与可行性进行了分析,根据分析选择了各模块使用器件并进行PCB布局。(4)针对硬件电路,完成软件系统的设计。对Linux内核进行了移植,包括SPI、CAN驱动等;移植了串口扩展、网卡扩展模块驱动;设计开发了GPIO驱动。(5)搭建控制系统试验平台进行软硬件测试。验证了系统控制器软硬件的可靠性,同时得到大致的功耗数据,达到了预期的设计目的。但也总结了存在问题并期待以后得到改进。
其他摘要Small Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (SAUV) is one of important tools for detection and Marine resources environment observation due to many advantages like environment adaptable and flexible movement. It has become the hot area in current marine equipment research. However, the control system of SAUV uses the processor architecture of X86 as the core mostly. The control system assembles various function interface cards and which causes the problem of low integration, high power consumption. According to the above problem, this paper uses the CPU of ARM Coretex-A9 series which has the characteristics of various interfaces, fast processing speed, low power consumption and designs the control system of SAUV. The system chooses Freescale I.MX6Q processor as the core and the circuit which integrates various function module s as the hardware platform. Then the control system chooses embedded Linux operation system as software running environment. The design ensures the performance reliability of the control system, improves the control system integration, and reduces the power consumption. With the consideration of onboard sensors and devices, more complex work environment and strong interference SAUV faced. The control system chooses the distributed and centralized control structure. The parts of power and propulsion become independent nodes. Controller communicates with other nodes through CAN bus. The sensor devices communicate with controller directly. The hardware system’s design form of controller is a combination between core circuit board and extension circuit board and it integrates of various function modules. The design of software based on hardware circuit and it contains the configuration of Linux kernel, the transplant and development of Linux driver for each function module. The hardware or software both implements the customization. In this paper, the main work includes: (1) The investigations on the current situation of control system of SAUV and the development of embedded processors are completed. It helps me to define the significance and feasibility to design control system of SAUV based on the ARM. (2) The overall design of the control system of SAUV based on I.MX6Q according to the requirements of SAUV is completed. Controller integrates the following modules: One module provide the power for the core circuit board and extension circuit board; The module of GPIO is used to control the equipment switch and detect water leaking; The module of extension of network card or serial-port is used to communicate with the corresponding interfaces of equipments; The module of CAN interface is used to communicate with the distributed nodes; The module of ADC is used to collect signal of equipment’s analog output such as for depth gauge. This design realizes the customization. (3) The design of the hardware circuit according to the overall design is completed. The designs of schematic and PCB are completed. In this paper, the rationality and feasibility of hardware circuit design are analyzed and then chooses the devices of various modules. Then the design PCB layout is completed. (4) The design of the software system according to the hardware circuit is completed. The cutting and configuration of Linux kernel, including the SPI, CAN drive and etc is completed. The drivers of serial-port extension and network extension are transplanted. The driver of GPIO is designed too. (5) The test platform of control system to test the software and hardware are set up. We verify the reliability of the controller’s hardware and software. We get data of the power consumption roughly at the same time and achieve the purpose.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/19647
专题水下机器人研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王晓杰. 基于ARM的小型AUV控制系统设计与实现[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2016.
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