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微型扑翼飞行器的分析与控制
其他题名Analysis And Control of Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle
董维中1,2
导师王志东 ; 崔龙
分类号TP273
关键词微型扑翼飞行器 扩张观测器 滑模控制 动态面
索取号TP273/D67/2017
页数92页
学位专业模式识别与智能系统
学位名称博士
2017-05-31
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门机器人学研究室
摘要微型扑翼飞行器是一种基于仿生学的机器人,高效的飞行效率、灵活的操纵性使得这种微型飞行器在特种军事、复杂民用领域内具备潜在的应用前景。进入新世纪以来,微型扑翼飞行器已成为国际微型飞行器(MAV)领域的研究热点之一。本文吸收总结了有关准稳态空气动力学、鲁棒控制、自适应控制、扩张观测器、滑模控制、微型扑翼飞行器设计等相关领域的近期研究成果,开展了准稳态气动力分析与计算、微型扑翼飞行器建模与简化、基于动态面的非线性控制方法、扩展观测器设计研究。 首先综述了国内外扑翼飞行器相关理论及实验的研究成果,总结了准定常气动力产生三大机制。扑翼飞行器不同于常规飞行器,其气动力的产生机制较为复杂,呈现强烈的非线性特点,在这样的条件下,建立了扑翼飞行器运动和动力学方程,为控制系统设计打下基础。本文将飞行器运动分为纵向和横侧向分别进行研究,设计了俯仰角控制、高度控制、航向保持、协调转弯、航迹控制五个模态的姿态跟踪控制器。 根据欧拉原则构建了微型扑翼飞行器的姿态误差方程,针对输入端的准稳态气动力干扰,基于动态面(DSC)技术,设计了俯仰角控制模态的鲁棒控制器。在高度控制模态中,引入扑翼飞行器模型不确定性的自适应估计律,考虑到准稳态气动力的干扰,并基于动态面(DSC)技术,设计了扑翼飞行器的鲁棒自适应姿态控制器,进行了仿真对比,相较于Back-stepping算法,本文算法的超调量下降50%,稳态性能和Back-stepping算法几乎相当。 在协调转弯控制模态中,引入扩张观测器和微分跟踪器观测补偿准稳态气动力的干扰,基于动态面(DSC)技术,设计了基于扩张观测器的鲁棒自适应姿态控制器。对于航迹控制模态,引入一种新滑模算法,设计了基于扩张观测器的有限滑模姿态控制器,并进行了数字仿真,扑翼飞行器姿态角在40秒内收敛到稳态值。 本文设计了一种微型扑翼飞行器,研制了地面遥控设备以及准稳态气动力测试平台。介绍了微型扑翼飞行器的结构以及地面遥控设备原理,开展了微型扑翼飞行器的准稳态气动力测试,进行了微型扑翼飞行器的室内飞行测试。
其他摘要FW-MAVs are bionic robots based on bionics reaserch. The high efficiency and flexible flight maneuverability make the reaserch of FW-MAVs being a specially attracted field. Especially, when being in a complex military, or the extremely civil field,it could perform some amazing results. This paper absorbs some recent quasi-steady aerodynamic, robust control, adaptive control, extended observer, sliding mode control and FW-MAVs design research results. This paper carries out calculation and analysis of quasi steady aerodynamics, dynamic modeling with simplification, nonlinear control strategy based on dynamic surface and extended observer design. The corresponding achievements and related experiments of flapping-wing MAV are introduced in detail. Analysis of the flapping-wing MAV wings’ fluttering process are summarized by the the three quasi-steady mechanisms. Flapping flight is different from the conventional aircraft. Its aerodynamic mechanism is complex. Its nonlinear characteristics are very strong. In such conditions, the establishment of FW-MAV with all degrees of freedom kinematics and dynamics equation are completed for further evaluation of control system design and verification. In this paper, the flight is divided into longitudinal and lateral directions, respectively. Five attitude tracking controllers are designed, which are pitch angle control, height control, course keeping, coordinated turn and tracking control. The attitude error equation of flapping-wing MAV is constructed by using Euler principle. A robust controller for pitching angle control mode is designed based on the dynamic surface technique for the quasi-steady aerodynamic disturbances at the input. In the height of the control mode, with the introduction of adaptive estimation of FW-MAV uncertainty, considering the quasi-steady aerodynamic interference and using dynamic surface technology, a robust adaptive attitude controller of flapping-wing MAV is completed with comparing with the Back-stepping algorithm. This algorithm overshoot is decreased by 50%. In coordinated turn control mode, with introduction of extended observer and differential tracker for observation and compensation of quasi-steady aerodynamic noise, using dynamic surface technology, a robust adaptive attitude controller is completed. In tracking control mode, with introduction of a new sliding mode algorithm, a finite sliding mode attitude controller based on observer and expansion is completed. The numerical simulation of flapping-wing MAV performs that attitude angle is converged to the steady-state value in 40 seconds. In this paper, a flapping-wing MAV is designed with ground remote control equipment and quasi steady aerodynamic test platform. The structure of micro flapping-wing MAV and the principle of ground remote control equipment are introduced. The quasi-steady aerodynamic testing of micro flapping-wing MAV is carried out. The indoor flight testing of flapping-wing MAV is carried out.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/20556
专题机器人学研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
董维中. 微型扑翼飞行器的分析与控制[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2017.
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