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深渊着陆器技术及生物学应用研究
其他题名Research on Techniques of Hadal Lander and Applications on Biology
陈俊1,2
导师张艾群
分类号TP242
关键词深渊着陆器 水动力分析 目标识别 自主观测 生物学应用
索取号TP242/C45/2017
页数123页
学位专业机械电子工程
学位名称博士
2018-05-19
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门海洋机器人卓越创新中心
摘要

本文结合中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)“深渊着陆器与采样技术”和海南省重大科技专项“深海勘探技术研究”课题的研究内容,围绕深渊着陆器关键技术以及生物学应用展开了深入的研究,主要包括以下内容:(1)面向深渊生物学应用展开科学需求分析,得到深渊着陆器的主要功能及技术指标,为工程实现及科学应用奠定基础。系统地研究了着陆器总体技术,针对超高压环境下的结构及密封设计问题,提出充油补偿的非承压式结构设计方案,并研究了核心电子元部件的充油耐压技术。面向深渊自主探测作业,提出了具备环境感知能力的控制系统设计方案,提高了系统的安全性和可靠性。结合科学应用需求与着陆器平台特点进行了科学载荷的研究与设计工作。(2)基于深渊生物精细尺度调查需求,提出了一种基于垂直舵的着陆器落点控制方法。以本文研制的“天涯”号深渊着陆器为研究对象,建立了动力学模型,通过CFD数值计算获取粘性水动力参数,并进行了无动力下潜运动的仿真实验,与海试数据对比结果验证了模型的准确性。研究了基于垂直舵的落点控制实现机理和方法,利用叠加原理建立了着陆器与垂直舵系统的动力学模型,提出了两种落点控制策略,仿真实验结果验证了方案的可行性。(3)针对生物观测效率低下的问题,提出了基于目标识别的自主观测方法。结合深渊环境特点,利用基于图像分块的改进背景差分法快速地分割出运动目标。针对深渊生物先验知识匮乏、图像质量差、特征信息少以及系统处理能力有限等问题,对深渊鱼类图像的形状特征提取及选择方法展开研究,设计了基于多PSO-SVM分类器的决策融合识别算法,利用深渊观测视频对算法有效性进行了验证。(4)为定量评价生物原位观测的效率,提出了观测的完整率和有效率两个评价指标。在目标识别基础上,对深渊鱼类的自主观测策略进行了深入研究,设计了窗口检测机制以减少因漏检测导致观测错误终止的问题。利用深渊着陆器两个潜次的完整观测视频进行了模拟观测实验,结果表明本文方法可极大地提高狮子鱼的观测效率。(5)介绍了深渊着陆器开展的海试研究工作以及在马里亚纳海沟进行生物学应用的概况。两套深渊着陆器自研制以来共完成64次海上试验,15次下潜深度超过6000m,其中4次超过万米,最大下潜深度达到10911m,取得了多项国际/国内具有突破性的科考成果,为我国在深渊生物学领域取得重大进展提供了重要支撑。深渊海试结果及成功应用,充分验证了本文研制的深渊着陆器具有较高的可靠性,在深渊生物学应用领域具有较好的实用价值和应用前景。

其他摘要

The thesis focuses on the key technologies of the hadal lander and its application on biology, which under the support of the Strategic Pilot Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Class B) “Hadal Lander and Sampling Technology” and the Hainan Provincial Major Science and Technology Project “Research on Deep Sea Exploration Technology”. The main content of the thesis is organized as follows: (1) Firstly, scientific demand of hadal biology application oriented is analyzed to clarify the main functions and technical requirements of hadal lander, which lays the foundation for engineering implementation and application in hadal exploration. Then overall technology of the lander system is systematically studied. A pressure balanced oil filled cabin design scheme is proposed to minimize the size and weight of the system, and involved technology of pressure-tolerant electronics is settled. To realize autonomous exploration in hadal zone, the control system is designed to have the ability of environment perception, which also enhances the security and reliability of lander deployments. Finally, technology of scientific payloads is well studied under consideration of scientific application requirements and lander system characteristics. (2) A novel specified position landing approach based on vertical rudder control is proposed to meet the demands of hadal fauna investigation on fine scale. The hydrodynamic model of the hadal lander “Tianya” is established, where viscous hydrodynamic parameters are obtained by CFD method. Free-fall descending characteristics are analyzed subsequently through computer simulation, and result shows good consistency with data acquired in sea trials, which verifies the accuracy of the hydrodynamic model. Realizing mechanism of the landing position control using vertical rudder is well studied. The lander and vertical rudder system hydrodynamic model is established based on the superposition principle. Two controlling strategies are proposed, and feasibility is affirmed according to simulation results. (3) To improve the efficiency of biological observation, an autonomous observation method based on target recognition is proposed. Considering the characteristics of hadal environment, an improved background difference method based on image blocking is designed to realize fast moving target detection and segmentation. Due to limitations in knowledge deficiency, poor image quality and restricted computing ability, shape feature extraction and selection method of hadal fauna is studied. Decision fusion algorithm based on multiple PSO-SVM classifiers is proposed for fish recognition, and validity is verified through tests using hadal observation video data. (4) Firstly, integrality and validity are recommended to quantitatively evaluate the observation efficiency. In-situ autonomous observation strategy is studied based on fish recognition algorithm. Window detect mechanism is proposed to reduce unexpected termination during observation caused by detection missing. Two complete video data of hadal deployment are used to simulate in-situ observation, which shows a high promotion of observation efficiency. (5) Related work of sea trials and biology applications in the Mariana trench are briefly presented. Totally 64 deployments have been carried out since development of the first lander in 2014. 15 deployments reach the depth deeper than 6000 meters including 4 deployments depth deeper than 10000 meters, where the deepest deployment depth is 10911 meters. Several international/domestic breakthrough achievements of hadal exploration are obtained, which provide significant support to make considerable progress in the field of hadal biology for our country. The sea-trial results and successful applications in hadal expedition, adequately verified the high reliability of the proposed hadal landers, meanwhile show a fascinating practical value and bright application prospect on hadal biology research.

语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/21787
专题海洋机器人卓越创新中心
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈俊. 深渊着陆器技术及生物学应用研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2018.
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