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小水线面高速无人艇参数化建模与空化特性研究
Alternative TitleStudy of parametric modelling and cavitation characteristics of high-speed unmanned surface vehicle with small water-plane area
王超1,2
Department海洋信息技术装备中心
Thesis Advisor林扬
ClassificationU674.941
Keyword小水线面 通气空化 自然空化 阻力特性 计算流体动力学
Call NumberU674.941/W36/2017
Pages130页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2018-05-21
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract

小水线面高速无人艇的潜体类似于水下航行体,在高速航行时可借鉴超高速水下航行体采用的空化减阻方法。本文主要以小水线面高速无人艇的减阻为目标,基于空化减阻思路和计算流体动力学(Computational Fluid Dynamic, CFD)方法,开展小水线面高速无人艇阻力、自然空化、通气空化等水动力特性的研究工作,指导小水线面高速无人艇的构型设计和参数化建模,最后采用水洞实验和自航模试验的方法验证研究与设计结果。详细研究内容如下:(1)为提供无空化状态下阻力特性研究对象,首先开展小水线面高速无人艇参数化建模方法的研究。建模时,基于均匀有理B样条曲线,提出由型值点和特征点同时控制生成B样条曲线方法,用于生成无人艇潜体和支柱的型线,建立小水线面无人艇的模型。研究基于CFD的无空化状态阻力特性计算方法,采用船模水池实验数据验证阻力特性数值计算方法的准确度,标定数值计算过程中的各项参数,应用经过验证的数值计算方法分析小水线面高速无人艇模型在全航速范围内的无空化状态阻力特性。(2)针对小水线面高速无人艇阻力随航速激增的问题,借鉴超空泡鱼雷采用的自然空化减阻方法,开展小水线面高速无人艇潜体的自然空化特性研究。利用前人的实验数据标定自然空化数值计算方法中空化模型的蒸发系数和冷凝系数,利用理论/经验公式进一步验证自然空化数值计算方法的准确度。采用经过验证的自然空化数值计算方法分析不同潜体头型的空化特性,针对无人艇潜体需要局部沾湿的需求,通过分析不同空化数条件下空泡尺度范围,提出局部超空化思想,并建立“空化器+椭球流线体+侧翼”的局部超空化构型,分析局部超空化构型的自然空化特性,分析结果表明局部超空化构型满足无人艇潜体的设计需求,为采用自然空化减阻方法的小水线面高速无人艇潜体的构型设计提供思路。(3)针对潜体自然空化对航速要求高、难控制的问题,提出通气空化减阻方法在无人艇潜体上应用的可行性。应用前人水洞实验结果验证通气空化数值计算方法的准确度,对局部超空化构型开展通气空化特性的数值研究,并指导局部超空化构型的改进设计,最后形成“空化器+椭球流线体+边条”的潜体构型方案。采用水洞实验的方法研究潜体构型方案的通气空化特性和阻力特性等,水洞实验结果验证了基于数值计算方法指导的潜体构型设计思路的准确性,最后形成了采用通气空化减阻方法时小水线面高速无人艇潜体设计指导原则。(4)采用小水线面高速无人艇潜体设计指导原则设计并生成无人艇的潜体,采用型值点和特征点同时控制生成的B样条曲线作为支柱的型线,并生成支柱的外形,建立小水线面高速无人艇模型。应用数值计算方法分析无人艇模型在设计航速范围内无空化状态阻力特性和通气空化特性,分析了潜体间距、航速和吃水深度等因素对阻力特性和空化特性的影响。设计并研制了小水线面高速无人艇缩比模型,在水池中开展自航试验,演示并验证通气空化减阻方法应用于小水线面高速无人艇的减阻机理。本文的研究成果为采用空化减阻方法的小水线面高速无人艇提供了潜体构型设计的理论基础和指导性规范,为通气空化减阻技术在小水线面高速无人艇上的应用奠定了技术基础。

Other Abstract

The submerged bodies of the SWATH high-speed USV are similar to underwater vehicles. Cavitation reduction methods used in the ultra high-speed underwater vehicles can be used as reference in high-speed navigation. In this thesis, with the drag reduction of the SWATH high-speed USV as the goal, with the cavitation drag reduction and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) as the means, research works about resistance, nature cavitation and ventilated cavitation hydrodynamic characteristics are carried out, which guide the configuration modeling and design of the SWATH high-speed USV. At last, design results are verified by water tuunel experiments and self-propulsion model tests. The detailed contents are as follows: (1) In order to provide a research object of resistance characteristics in non cavitation state, the research on the parameterized modeling method of the SWATH high-speed USV was first carried out. During modeling, based on the uniform rational B spline curve, a B spline curve generated and controlled by both value points and characteristic points was proposed, which was used to generate the profile of the submerged bodies' hull and struts. And the SWATH USV model was established. A calculation method of resistance characteristic with non cavitation based on CFD was studied. The numerical calculation method accuracy of resistance characteristics was validated by towing tank experimental datas. Various parameters in the numerical calculation process were calibrated. The validated numerical calculation method was adopted to analyze the resistance characteristics of the SWATH high-speed USV model in the whole speed range. (2) Aiming at the problem that the resistance of the SWATH high-speed USV increases with cruising speeds, the natural cavitation drag reduction method adopted by the supercavitating torpedo was used as reference. The natural cavitation characteristics of the submerged bodies on the SWATH high-speed USV were studied. The evaporation coefficient and condensation coefficient of cavitation model in natural cavitation numerical calculation are calibrated by previous experimental datas. And the accuracy of the numerical calculation method of natural cavitation was further verified by theoretical / empirical formula. The validated natural cavitation numerical calculation method was used to analyze cavitation characteristics of different submerged body types. For the demand of wet surface of the submerged bodies, partial super cavitation thought was proposed through analyzing cavity size ranges under different cavitation numbers. A partial supercavitation configuration was established, which consist of a cavitator, an ellipsoid streamline body and flankings. Natural cavitation characteristics of the partial supercavitation configuration were analyzed. Analysis results showed that the partial supercavitation configuration could meet the design requirements of the USV's submerged bodies. The results provided ideas to design the SWATH high-speed USV submerged bodies with the nature cavitation drag reduction method. (3) In view of the problem that the natural cavitation of the submerged bodies required a high speed and was not easy to control, the feasibility of applying the ventilated cavitation drag reduction method to the USV's submerged bodies was proposed. The accuracy of the ventilated cavitation numerical calculation method was validated by former water tunnel experimental results. Ventilated cavitation characteristics of the partial supercavitation configuration were numerically studied, which guide the improved design of the configuration. The submerged body configuration were finally formed which consist of a cavitator, an ellipsoidal streamline body and edges. Ventilated cavitation characteristics and resistance characteristics were studied by water tunnel experiments. The water tunnel experiment results verified the design method of the submerged body configuration guided by numerical calculation. Finally, the design guidelines of the submerged bodies on the SWATH high-speed USV with ventilated cavitation drag reduction method were formed. (4) The design guidelines of the SWATH high-speed USV submerged bodies were adopted to establish the submerged bodies. The B spline curves generated and controlled by both value points and characteristic points were used as strut lines. The strut models were generated. The SWATH high-speed USV model were established. The numerical calculation method were used to analyze the resistance characteristics with non cavitation and ventilated cavitation characteristics of the USV model. The influences of the distance between the submerged bodies, cruising speeds and draught depths on the drag characteristics and cavitation characteristics were analyzed. The shrinkage model of the SWATH high-speed USV was designed and developed. And self propulsion tests were carried out in a basin. The drag reduction mechanism of ventilated cavitation drag reduction method is demonstrated and verified for the SWATH high-speed USV model. The research results in this thesis provide theoretical basis and guidance standard for the design of the submerged body configuration for the SWATH high-speed USV with cavitation drag reduction method. They lay the technical foundation for the application of the ventilated cavitation drag reduction technology on the SWATH high-speed USV.

Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/21791
Collection海洋信息技术装备中心
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王超. 小水线面高速无人艇参数化建模与空化特性研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2018.
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