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星载天线指向机构地面测试系统设计与实验研究
其他题名Design and Experimental Research of Ground Testing System for Satellite Antenna Pointing Mechanism
杨国永1,2
导师肖继忠 ; 王洪光
分类号V443.4
关键词微重力 气浮 分级同步 重力卸载 卸载精度
索取号V443.4/Y27/2018
页数134页
学位专业模式识别与智能系统
学位名称博士
2018-05-24
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门空间自动化技术研究室
摘要论文首先对各种微重力环境的实现方法进行了梳理归纳,分析了各自的实现机理和优缺点,通过比较选择气浮方式搭建微重力试验台。针对天线指向机构的结构特点和性能测试的要求,开展用于卫星天线指向机构的气浮微重力试验台设计,并开展相关研究,主要包括以下几个方面:首先,根据天线指向机构的特点和性能测试的要求,提出了一种分级同步重力卸载方法,对卫星天线指向机构的两个关节分别进行重力卸载,设计了模拟负载代替卫星天线进行指向机构的性能测试。天线指向机构由两个正交关节组成,为了在地面模拟其运行的微重力环境,需要分别对两个关节的重力进行卸载。通过对已有气浮试验台和各种气浮元器件的分析,提出了一种分级同步重力卸载方法,采用气浮垫和气浮主轴实现对天线指向机构及模拟负载的重力卸载。为真实的反映卫星天线的物理特性,基于质量、惯量和频率约束设计了模拟负载,解决了两个关节转动惯量的耦合问题,并根据该设计过程提出了一种基于给定频率的结构设计方法。通过对气浮微重力试验台的结构设计和ADAMS中的仿真,初步验证了该重力卸载方法的正确性和有效性。其次,对地面试验台和空间中的运行状态分别建立了运动学、动力学模型,并进行了相似性分析,对所提出的分级同步重力卸载方法进行理论上的验证。在对重力卸载方法的分析和试验台结构设计的基础上,采用D-H参数法和牛顿-欧拉法推导了运动学和动力学模型。为模拟微重力环境,引入了多处卸载力,其目的是卸载掉重力对关节受力和力矩的影响,因此在牛顿-欧拉法推导运动学模型时,对相关连杆的受力平衡方程进行了修正。通过对天线指向机构的两个关节受力和力矩的比较,进一步验证了卸载方法的有效性。在动力学模型的基础上,用相似性原理推导了空间模型和气浮试验台模型的相似准则,并用相似度分析方法分析了二者的相似程度,从另一个方面给出了气浮试验台测试数据的可靠程度。再次,对气浮试验台的重力卸载精度及多个影响因素进行定量分析,对气浮试验台本身的性能进行评价。气浮试验台需要完成天线指向机构的重力卸载和性能测试,主要包括两个关节的转角精度和输出力矩,其中能够反映重力卸载精度的主要是关节输出力矩。因此对影响关节驱动力矩的多个因素进行分析,包括:可调弹簧机构的弹力、水平轴负载平衡程度、水平关节与气浮主轴同轴度、气浮垫与气浮主轴的粘滞阻力、花岗岩平台的水平程度。通过层次分析法,得出各个影响因素的权重系数,求得试验台的重力卸载精度。最后,根据设计的试验台结构,搭建了气浮试验台并进行了实验研究。进行了花岗岩台面水平程度的测量、通过气路的通断测试了气浮元器件的有效性、对气浮主轴和其两端的连接件进行了同轴度测量、测试了水平轴负载的不平衡力矩,最后通过在试验台上测量两个关节的输出力矩并与理论值对比,得出了试验台的重力卸载精度。通过实验,进一步证明了卸载方法和仿真及理论分析的正确性。本文的主要贡献及创新点包括:(1)提出了一种分级同步重力卸载方法,该方法能够对卫星天线指向机构的两个关节分别进行重力卸载,在地面提供其运行的微重力环境;(2)设计了一种负载结构,能够对两个串联的正交关节的转动惯量解耦;提出了一种基于给定频率的结构优化设计方法,能够在给定质量、惯量及频率的约束下完成结构设计;(3)对牛顿-欧拉法推导动力学模型过程中的受力平衡方程进行修正,增加了卸载力对应的项目,明确了卸载力的作用。
其他摘要This dissertation analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of those methods and air bearing method is chosen to build the gravity unloading facility. Based on the structure characteristics of antenna pointing mechanism and performance test requirements, research on the air bearing facility for the antenna pointing mechanism is completed. Mainly including the following aspects: First of all, a hierarchical and simultaneous gravity unloading method is proposed based on the characteristics of antenna pointing mechanism and performance test requirements. This method can unload the gravity of both joints of antenna pointing mechanism respectively. The artificial load is designed for replacing the satellite antenna to test the performance of antenna pointing mechanism. The antenna pointing mechanism consists of two orthogonal joints. The gravity of both joints should be unloaded respectively to simulate microgravity environment. Planar air bearing and air spindle are applied to unload the gravity of antenna pointing mechanism and artificial load in the proposed gravity unloading method. The artificial load is designed under the constrains of mass, momemt of inertia and frequency to truly reflect the physical characteristics of satellite antenna. A design method based on given frequency is summarized based on the artificial load design. The correctness and effectiveness of the gravity unloading method are preliminarily verified by structure design and simulation in ADAMS software. Secondly, the kinematics and dynamics models of gravity unloading facility and running state in space are derived respectively, then similarity analysis is completed. Thus the hierarchical and simultaneous gravity unloading method proposed is verified theoretically. D-H parameter method and the Newton-Euler method are applied to derive the kinematics and dynamics models based on the analysis of gravity unloading method and the structure of facility. Multiple unloading forces are introduced to eliminate the influence of gravity on the joints when trying to get the microgravity environment. Therefore, the force balance equations of the related links are modified when deriving the kinematic model with Newton-Euler method. By comparing the force and torque of two joints of the antenna pointing mechanism in two models, the effectiveness of the unloading method is further verified. Then the similarity criteria between air bearing facility and running state in space are derived by using the similarity principle based on the kinematics and dynamics models. The approximate similarity analysis method is used to derive the degree of similarity between the two models. The result shows the reliability of the air bearing facility from another aspect. Thirdly, the gravity unloading precision of this facility and the items which affect the precision are quantitatively analyzed. So the performance of the facility itself is evaluated. The main purposes of this facility are unloading the gravity and testing the performance of antenna pointing mechanism. The angle precision and torque of two joints are the main parameters to test among which the torque of two joints reflects the gravity unloading precision. So the items which affect the torque are found and analyzed, including the forces of adjustable spring mechanisms, the balance level of horizontal joint load, the coaxiality of horizontal joint and air spindle, the viscous resistance of planar air bearing and air spindle, and the level degree of granite platform. The weight coefficients of all items are derived by analytic hierarchy process, then the gravity unloading precision is obtained. Finally, the air bearing facility is built based on the proposed method and structure design, then experimental research on this facility is completed. The level degree of granite platform is measured, the effectiveness of air bearing components is tested by turning on and off the pneumatic circuit, coaxiality between air spindle and connectors at both ends of air spindle is measured, the unbalanced torque of horizontal load is also measured. At last, the gravity unloading precision is measured by comparing the output curves of torque sensors on both joints with the theoretical curves. The correctness of the unloading method, simulation and theoretical analysis are further proved by these experiments. The main contributions and innovations of this dissertation are as follows: (1) A hierarchical and simultaneous gravity unloading method is proposed. This method can unload the gravity of two joints of the satellite antenna pointing mechanism and provide the microgravity environment on the ground. (2) A structure is designed to decouple the rotational inertia moment of two orthogonal joints; a structural optimization design method based on given frequency is proposed, and the structure design can be completed under constraints of given mass, moment of inertia, and frequency; (3) Force balance equations in dynamic model derivation with Newton-Euler method are revised by adding the corresponding items of unloading force, which show the purpose of unloading forces.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/21795
专题空间自动化技术研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨国永. 星载天线指向机构地面测试系统设计与实验研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2018.
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