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绳索驱动式蛇形机械臂机构设计与运动分析
其他题名Structure Design and Motion Analysis of Rope Driven Snake-arm Manipulators
马可1,2
导师李斌
分类号TP241
关键词蛇形机械臂 运动学 静力学分析 运动学仿真
索取号TP241/M15/2018
页数67页
学位专业机械电子工程
学位名称硕士
2018-05-17
学位授予单位中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点沈阳
作者部门机器人学研究室
摘要本文的研究内容围绕应用于动车底盘检测的机器人展开,针对动车底盘结构复杂、空间有限的问题,需要一种灵巧的机器人以满足作业要求。机器人要对一些结构复杂、布局紧凑的工业操作环境或非结构化自然环境具有良好的适应能力,这就需要研究开发更具灵活性的机器人来满足日渐增长的需求。仿生机器人能够模拟生物体独特的运动特性,可以适应各种类型复杂的工作环境。以模拟生物蛇生理构造而来的蛇形机器人,具有运动灵活、工作特性稳定等特点,可将其用来实现工业上狭小非结构空间中的故障检测和维修等操作。因此,本文围绕一种新型的蛇形机械臂,在总体结构设计、运动学建模、关节力学分析和样机系统集成与实验等方面展开了一系列的探索与实验研究。首先,完成机器人本体结构设计以适应复杂非结构环境,使其具有运动灵活、可达性好的特性。本文运用TRIZ理论,对其应用环境下的主要矛盾进行分析,得出设计要素,结合仿蛇类机器人自由度多、环境适应能力强的特点,与传统机械臂相对成熟的特性,提出了一类新型的蛇形机械臂。为提高机械臂的运动灵活性,降低机械臂的重量,使用了绳索作为主要驱动方式,并完成了该蛇形机械臂的驱动机理研究,完成了机器人本体的机械结构设计。针对蛇形机械臂关节的机构特点,本文利用一种等效转轴的运动学描述法建立了蛇形臂的运动学模型,采用几何投影的方法得到了绳索驱动空间与期望关节位姿之间的映射关系,并完成了蛇形臂整体运动的运动学解耦分析,实现了驱动空间对关节空间的独立控制,并通过仿真验证了蛇形臂的运动能力。随后建立了蛇形机械臂各个关节与期望位姿之间的静力学模型,对绳索驱动机构中预紧弹簧产生的被动位移进行了补偿,提高了关节驱动的控制精度。针对绳索模型建立的难点,对比并尝试了各类仿真方法,最终通过Adams构建了蛇形臂运动学仿真模型,完成了关节驱动补偿方法有效性的验证,并同时说明了绳索驱动空间与关节位姿空间之间映射的正确性。最后根据蛇形机械臂的机械结构设计,完成了样机零部件的加工、安装与调试,且完成了硬件系统与控制系统的集成,实现了样机整机系统的集成。并依据已建成的样机系统,开展了系列实验研究。实验结果表明,蛇形臂关节能够在电机协同驱动下有效的运动,关节反馈能够有效提高关节运动精度,多关节运动学解耦方法可以有效地对各个关节的驱动进行解耦计算,蛇形臂能够在三维空间灵活的弯曲运动。
其他摘要The research content of this paper focuses on the development of the robot used in the bullet train chassis detection. In view of the complex and limited space of the chassis structure, a dexterous robot is needed to meet the requirements of the operation. Robots must have good adaptability to adapt to some complex or compact industrial operating environment or unstructured natural environment. This requires the research and development of more flexible robots to meet the increasing demand. Bionic robots can adapt to various complex working environments by imitating the unique motion characteristics of living organisms. The snake-like robot that simulates the physiological structure of the snake has the characteristics of good accessibility, high flexibility, and stable working performance. It can be used to complete complex and difficult operations such as defect detection and maintenance in narrow confined spaces in industry. Therefore, in this paper, a series of explorations and experiments of a new type of snake like manipulator have been carried out in terms of overall structure design, kinematics modeling, joint mechanics analysis and prototype system integration and experimentation. First, the robot structure design suitable for the complex environment is implemented, so that it has the characteristics of flexible motion and good accessibility. In this paper, the main contradictions in the application environment are analyzed with TRIZ theory, and the design elements are obtained, and a new kind of snake like manipulator is proposed with the combination of the characteristics of the more free degree and the strong adaptability of the environment of the snake like robot, and the relative maturity of the traditional manipulator. In order to increase the flexibility of the manipulator and reduce the weight of the manipulator, the rope was used as the main driving method. The drive mechanism of the snake-arm manipulator is completed, and the mechanical structure design of the robot is completed. In view of the structural characteristics of the snake-arm manipulator, a kinematic model of the snake arm is established by using a kinematic description method of the equivalent rotating shaft. The mapping relationship between the rope driving space and the desired joint posture is obtained by the geometric projection method, and the kinematic decoupling analysis between the joints of the snake arm is completed. The independent control of the joint space by the driving space is realized, and the motion ability of the snake arm is verified by this simulation. Then the static model between the joint and the desired attitude of the snake-arm manipulator is established, and the passive displacement in the rope driven mechanism is compensated, which improves the control precision of the joint drive. In view of the difficulty of the rope modeling, various simulation methods are compared and tried. Finally, the kinematics simulation model of the snake arm is constructed by Adams, and the validity of the joint drive compensation method is verified, and the correctness of the mapping relationship between the driving space and the joint space is also illustrated. Finally, according to the mechanical structure design of the snake-arm manipulator, the machining, installation and debugging of the prototype parts are completed. The integration of the hardware and control systems is completed, and the integration of the whole machine system is realized. On the basis of the completed prototype system, a series of experimental studies have been carried out. The experimental results show that the snake arm joint can effectively move under the synergistic drive of the motors, the joint feedback can effectively improve the motion accuracy of the joint, the multi joint kinematics decoupling method can effectively decouple the drive of each joint and the snake arm can flexibly bend and move in three-dimensional space.
语种中文
产权排序1
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/21816
专题机器人学研究室
作者单位1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
马可. 绳索驱动式蛇形机械臂机构设计与运动分析[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2018.
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