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柔性关节机械臂振动抑制研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Vibration Suppression of the Flexible Joint Manipulator
宛敏红
Department空间自动化技术研究室
Thesis Advisor周维佳
Keyword柔性关节机械臂 振动抑制 轨迹优化 动力吸振器 主动消隙
Pages123页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2018-12-03
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract

本文以空间站在研项目“空间站手套箱机械臂系统研制”、国家科技重大专项“大型薄壁高精度搅拌摩擦焊设备技术研究”、中科院先导专项“空间站机械臂研制”以及国家自然科学基金为依托,研究了柔性关节机械臂的振动抑制问题。首先梳理出了导致振动产生的原因,然后基于通用的柔性关节机械臂动力学模型,从轨迹平滑、前馈补偿、轨迹优化、动力吸振以及消隙抑振的角度,提出了系统的振动抑制方法与策略,分析了抑振效果,并通过实验验证了抑振方法的有效性。本文研究内容主要包括以下几个方面:(1)首先阐述了柔性关节机械臂的动力学建模方法,利用多自由度系统振动理论推导了柔性关节机械臂的振动计算公式,提出了柔性关节机械臂振动抑制的总体策略。(2)搭建了一套轻型柔性关节机械臂,并辨识了关节阻尼与摩擦参数。构建了柔性关节机械臂的控制系统模型,仿真计算了四种控制模式下的机械臂轨迹误差与振动响应,分析了连杆动力学与关节摩擦力对轨迹精度与振动响应的影响。实验验证了机械臂的位置控制性能,并比较了三次样条与五次样条平滑插值对机械臂振动响应的影响。(3)提出了将最优S曲线规划方法应用于柔性关节机械臂中,用以抑制机械臂在高速点到点运动中的残余振动。通过S曲线规划方法,构造各关节的运动轨迹,以机械臂末端点到达目标点处残余振动的最大振幅为抑制目标,以各关节S曲线参数为优化参数,利用遗传算法计算获得了机械臂的最优轨迹,并分析了该算法相对于机械臂主要动力学参数误差的鲁棒性,实验验证了最优S曲线对残余振动抑制的有效性。(4)针对柔性关节机械臂难以附加阻尼的问题,提出了在机械臂末端附加三维动力吸振器以增加系统阻尼的方法。推导了柔性关节机械臂与动力吸振器的耦合动力学方程,阐述了动力吸振器的设计方法,仿真分析了单个吸振器与多吸振器的抑振效果,以及吸振控制方法的鲁棒性。通过实验验证了动力吸振器抑振机械臂振动的有效性。(5)分析了传动机构中的齿隙导致的柔性关节振动现象,提出了采用双电机主动消隙的方法抑制齿隙导致的柔性关节振动,以重载搅拌摩擦焊机器人腕关节为例,推导了双电机驱动的含齿隙柔性关节动力学方程,构建了双电机主动消隙的控制系统模型,仿真分析了主动消隙的抑振效果与鲁棒性,并在重载搅拌摩擦焊机器人上实验验证了消隙抑振的有效性。

Other Abstract

In this paper, the vibration suppression of the flexible joint manipulator(FJM) is studied in depth. And the research is sponsored by the space station research project "Development of the Space Station Glove Box Manipulator System", "Research on Large-scale and High-precision Friction Stir Welding Equipment for Thin-shell Structures", "Development of the Space Station Manupulator" which is a leading project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and National Natural Science Foundation of China. Firstly, the causes of vibration are analyzed. Then, the vibration suppression methods and strategies are proposed from the aspects of trajectory smoothing, feedforward compensation, trajectory optimization, vibration absorption and anti-backlash. Detailed simulation and experimental verification are also carried out.. The research process and detailed descriptions are as follows: (1) The dynamics modeling method of the FJM is expounded, and the vibration calculation formula of the FJM is deduced based on the vibration theory of multi-degree of freedom system. The overall strategy of vibration suppression is put forward. (2) A lightweight FJM is built, and the joint damping and friction parameters are identified. The control system model of the FJM is constructed. The trajectory error and vibration response of the manipulator under four control modes are simulated and calculated. and the influences of link dynamics and friction on trajectory error and vibration are analyzed. The performance of motion control is verified by experiments, and the influences of cubic spline and quintic spline trajectory planning on the vibration response of the manipulator are compared through actual tests. (3) The optimal S-curve planning method is applied to the FJM to suppress the residual vibration of the manipulator in point-to-point motion at high speed. All the joint trajectories are planned through S curves, and the maximum amplitude of residual vibration of the manipulator end point at the target point is taken as the suppression target. The S-curve parameters of all joints are taken as the optimizing parameters, and the genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal values. The robustness of the algorithm is also analyzed. Finally, the effectiveness of the optimal S curve on residual vibration suppression is verified by experiments. (4) To solve the problem that it is difficult to add damping to the flexible joint manipulator, a method of adding three-dimensional dynamic absorber at the end of the manipulator to increase the system damping is proposed. The coupling dynamics equation of the flexible joint manipulator and the dynamic absorber is deduced, and the design method of the dynamic absorber is expounded. The vibration suppression effect of single vibration absorber and multi absorbers is simulated and analyzed. The robustness of vibration control method is analyzed, and the effectiveness of vibration suppression with the dynamic vibration absorber is verified by experiment. (5) The vibration phenomenon of flexible joint caused by backlash in transmission mechanism is analyzed, and the method of active anti-backlash with two motors is proposed to suppress the vibration of flexible joint caused by the backlash. Taking the wrist joint of friction stir welding robot as an example, the dynamics model of flexible joint with backlash drived by two motors is deduced, and the control system is constructed. The effect and robustness of active anti-backlash method for suppressing vibration are stuided by simulation. The experimental results show that the active anti-backlash method can make the heavy-duty friction stir welding robot achieve high precision welding ability.

Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/23634
Collection空间自动化技术研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宛敏红. 柔性关节机械臂振动抑制研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2018.
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