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超高频RFID系统防冲突技术研究及在离散制造业中的应用
Alternative TitleUHF RFID Research on Anti-Collision and Application in Discrete Manufacturing
田景贺1,2
Department先进制造技术研究室
Thesis Advisor范玉顺 ; 朱云龙
ClassificationTN911.23
Keyword无线射频识别 防冲突 时隙 在制品监控 集成控制
Call NumberTN911.23/T56/2008
Pages110页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2008-05-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract无线射频识别技术(RFID)已经成为21世纪最热门的技术之一。RFID技术与网络、通讯等技术相结合,可实现全球范围内物品跟踪与信息共享。RFID技术应用于离散制造业,可大幅提高生产活动的自动化水平、管理与运作效率,降低生产成本。本文以离散制造业为应用背景,对RFID系统防冲突技术和应用集成技术进行了深入研究,具体研究内容如下: 首先,进行了RFID标签防冲突识别算法的研究。根据标签在时隙中分布的概率统计性质对动态帧时隙Aloha(DFSA)算法的帧时隙调整策略进行了理论分析,给出了帧时隙数应近似等于待读标签数的帧时隙调整规则;详细分析了EPC GEN2中的DFSA算法及其性能,提出了基于帧内时隙调整策略的改进型GEN2协议,采用积极策略主动应对帧内的标签冲突情况,通过主动地调整时隙来提高冲突标签在当前帧中被识别的概率,避免过于盲目的帧调整操作。仿真实验结果表明,与原防冲突协议相比,改进后的GEN2协议的标签吞吐率提高了约20%、帧效率提高几乎达到2倍。 其次,进行了RFID读写器冲突问题研究。对密集读写器环境下的读写器冲突问题进行了数学描述,分别对读写器冲突中的标签干扰和频率干扰问题进行了图论分析与建模,提出了一种读写器防冲突的集中式控制方法,其基本思想是采取标签干扰支配频率干扰、时分-频分多址通讯的方式避免读写器冲突。针对标签干扰问题与平面图着色问题的相似性,确定了通过四个时隙的分配解决标签干扰问题,建立了四时隙分配问题的Hopfield神经网络模型,并引入了混沌机制与模拟退火策略进行求解。仿真结果表明,本文提出的集中式时分-频分控制的读写器防冲突方法与分布式方法相比,可以明显提高读写器的时间利用率,具有更好的实时性;采用混沌神经网络方法进行时隙分配问题求解是可靠、高效的。 再次,进行了基于RFID的在制品实时跟踪与监控技术研究。在分析了在制品跟踪与监控对RFID的技术需求的基础上,提出了基于RFID的在制品跟踪与控制系统架构;通过RFID生成带有时间戳的跟踪向量实现对在制品生产过程活动的跟踪与监控;给出了基于RFID数据采集的在制品与制造资源的时空定位方法以及转移与工艺路径跟踪方法;提出了基于RFID数据采集在制品加工过程分析模型和加工进度分析模型,通过两种模型分别实时地分析在制品加工过程中可能出现的问题、加工过程进度及其变化信息,为车间实时生产调度提供依据。 最后,研究了RFID与生产控制系统的集成方法。分析了现有的RFID在离散制造业生产控制中的应用模式的局限性,指出了RFID在生产控制中的集成应用趋势。在此基础上,提出了基于现场总线的RFID集成控制方法,分析了集成应用的关键技术;然后以CAN总线为例,设计并开发了具有CAN总线接口的RFID集成控制单元,建立了基于CAN总线的RFID生产线集成控制实验系统,通过MCGS软件进行系统组态,并在实验室环境中进行了实验。与传统的应用模式相比,基于现场总线的RFID生产集成控制模式简化了网络结构,标签承载信息更加丰富,信息交互更加透明、快捷,使RFID系统得以深入到现场设备层直接参与生产控制,从而实现与自动化生产线控制系统的高效集成。
Other AbstractRadio frequency identification (RFID) has been a most pop technology. RFID, combined with network and modern communications technology, can realize tracking and information sharing of goods all over the world. And being applied in discrete manufaturing, RFID improve production automation, efficiency of management, and reduce production cost. This research takes discrete manufacturing process as the application enviroments, and studies RFID anti-collision methods and RFID applied integration technology. Firstly, the anti-collision algorithm for RFID tag is discussed. Based on the probability statistics of tag’s distribution in slots, the frame adjusting strategy that the number of slots be equal to the number of tag to be read is proposed for Dynamic Frame Slotted Aloha (DFSA) algorithm. The performance of DFSA algorithm specified in EPC GEN2 protocol is discussed and analyzed, then an improved protocol based on slot adjusting during frame operation is presented, active slot adjusting strategy for tags can increase the chances that collided tags be identified in current frame and avoid switchign frame blindly. The simulations show that the improved protocol highten the tag throuthput by 20 percents and the frame efficiency by nearly twice compared with EPC GEN2 protocol. Secondly, the reader collision problem in RFID system is discussed. Reader collision in dense reader enviroments is descripted mathematically, tag interference and frequency interference are analyzed using graph theory. Then a centralized control method for reader collision is proposed, tag interference dominates frequency interference, and both TDMA and FDMA are adopted. its frame adjusting strategy is proved by analyzing the probability statistics of tag’s distribution in slots. Tag number estimation based EPC GEN2 anti-collision algorithm is proposed. After that, according to the similarity of plane graph coloring problem, tag interference is defined as four slots assignment problem, and a Hopfield neural network model with chaos mechanism and annealing strategy is built to solve the problem. Compared with distributed method, the proposed method for reader collision is able of highten time availability of reader and has good real-time performance. The simulations show that chaos neural network model based on annealing strategy is reliable and efficient for slots assignment problem. Thirdly, RFID is applied in work-in-process (WIP) management. After analyzing the demand of WIP management for RFID, the architechture of WIP tracking and monitoring system based on RFID is proposed. The tracking vector includes time stamp generated from RFID, by which WIP and resouces locating and their transfer and process routing method is presented. And WIP processing analytical model and progress analytical model are built to monitoring the problem, processing progress and their dynamic information, which can provide the production scheduling decision with constructive solutions. Finally, RFID integration and application in production control system is studied. The limits of exist RFID application mode in production control and its development trend are analyzed. Then a fieldbus based RFID integrated control method is proposed, and its key techniques are detailed. After that, the RFID control unit with CAN bus interface is designed, by which a experimental RFID integrated production line control system based on CAN bus is built and configurated by MCGS software. Compared with traditional RFID application mode in production, the fieldbus based integration and application mode simplifies the information structure, enriches the data carried on tag, brings more direct and transparent information interaction between RFID and control system, and make RFID go deep into device level in control system and be integrated with control system efficiently.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/248
Collection工业信息学研究室_先进制造技术研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
田景贺. 超高频RFID系统防冲突技术研究及在离散制造业中的应用[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2008.
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