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玉米联合收获机自动对行技术研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Row Guidance Technology for Combine Corn Harvester
高飞扬1,2
Department数字工厂研究室
Thesis Advisor王卓
Keyword玉米联合收获机 导航控制 自动对行 对行偏移量检测
Pages64页
Degree Discipline模式识别与智能系统
Degree Name硕士
2019-05-17
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract目前对于收割机自动控制技术的研究主要集中于对行检测装置、车辆转向控制和对行控制算法三个方面。国外茎秆类作物自动对行收割控制已经持续了很多年,国内才刚刚起步。对行检测装置一般分为接触式和非接触式检测方式,接触式检测一般以带有摆杆的机械结构作为代表,非接触式则有激光雷达、机器视觉和超声雷达等,受玉米收割环境影响,非接触式的检测装置存在着各种问题,机械接触式检测机构因为其检测方式,显得更加简单实用。车辆转向控制则是通过控制算法,使车辆在接受到对行控制器传递的信号之后,能够进行有效转向,因为收割环境的行驶路面不平整,在一部分收割场景还存在着各种影响收割机转向的因素,所以需要设计合适的控制系统能够使收割机按照指定的转向角进行转向。对行控制算法则是通过车辆转向模型或者位姿误差模型设计控制律,最终求得被控车辆应该转向的角度来控制车辆转向,很容易可以看出对行控制算法的形式与对行检测装置的形式是紧密相关的。根据以上分析,本文以玉米作物行检测装置和玉米联合收获机的自动对行控制算法为主要的研究对象,对玉米联合收获机的自动对行控制技术进行研究。本文所研究的主要内容包括以下三个部分:第一、针对玉米植株的特性以及收割环境的情况,设计并研发了一种机械对行检测装置,并对对行检测装置进行分析与调试,使得对行检测装置能够应用于玉米作物行检测中,为对行控制算法的研究提供了基础。之后对对行检测装置进行力学分析,为以后的改进提供了参考依据。第二、针对第一步中研制出的自动对行检测装置进行对行控制器的设计,考察车辆运动学模型,使用小信号近似对模型进行线性化处理,假设偏离程度与横向误差呈线性关系,通过调节反馈信号增益,使控制系统稳定,进而对转向控制器进行设计。第三、对玉米联合收获机的对行控制系统进行简单设计,按照设计,建设玉米联合收获机自动对行控制系统,之后通过设计路面实验平台,对玉米联合收获机的对行检测装置进行调节并检验玉米联合收获机的自动对行控制算法的有效性。实验结果表明以上系统可以满足玉米联合收获机对行控制的需求。
Other AbstractAt present, the research on automatic row guidance control technology of combine corn harvester mainly focuses on three aspects: row detection device, vehicle steering control and row guidance algorithm. The research on automatic harvesting control of stem crops has been going on for many years abroad but has only just begun in China. The row detection device is generally divided into contact type and non-contact detection mode, contact detection is generally represented by the mechanical structure with rod, while non-contact devices include lidar, machine vision, ultrasonic radar, etc., considering the impact of corn harvesting environment, non-contact detection device has a variety of problems, mechanical contact detecting mechanism seems more simple and practical because of its detection method. The vehicle steering control is through the control algorithm, so that the vehicle can be effectively turned after receiving the signal transmitted to the row guidance controller, because the driving surface of the harvesting environment is not smooth, in a part of the harvesting scene there are various factors affecting the harvester steering, Therefore, it is necessary to design a suitable control system to enable the harvester to turn according to the specified steering angle. For the line control algorithm, it is easy to see that the form of the line control algorithm is closely related to the form of the line detection device by accepting the measured value of the row detection device, obtaining the current angle of vehicle steering through the control law, passing it to the vehicle steering controller, and controlling the vehicle steering. According to the above analysis, this paper mainly takes the line detection device and the line control algorithm as the main research object, and studies the line control technology of maize combine harvester, the main contents of the research include the following parts: First, according to the characteristics of maize plants and the situation of harvesting environment, a mechanical row detection device is designed and developed, and the analysis and calibration of the row detection device is carried out, so that the row detection device can be applied to the detection of maize crop row, which provides the basis for the research of the row guidance control algorithm. After that, the mechanical analysis of the row detection device is carried out, which provides a reference for the future improvement. Secondly, according to the automatic row detection device developed in the first step, the row guidance controller is designed, the vehicle kinematics model is investigated, the model is linearized by using small signal approximation, the deviation degree is linearly related to the transverse error, and the control system is stabilized by adjusting the feedback signal gain, and then the steering controller is designed. Thirdly, the software and hardware structure of the row guidance control system are designed, the construction of the control system of the Corn Harvester is completed, and the effectiveness of the line control algorithm is adjusted and tested by designing the simulation experiment platform. At the same time, field experiments are carried out to verify the test device and the line control algorithm, and the experimental results show that the system above can meet the demand of row guidance control of combine corn harvester.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/25172
Collection数字工厂研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
高飞扬. 玉米联合收获机自动对行技术研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2019.
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