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基于超短基线定位的 AUV 对接导航方法研究
Alternative TitleResearch on AUV docking navigation method based on ultra-short baseline positioning
裘天佑1,2
Department水下机器人研究室
Thesis Advisor李一平
Keyword自主水下机器人 AUV对接 USBL定位 扩展卡尔曼滤波 路径规划
Pages63页
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Degree Name硕士
2019-05-17
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract由于自主水下对接技术能极大地扩展自主水下机器人(AUV)的能力,目前AUV对接已成为水下机器人的研究热点。AUV对接任务与其它AUV任务相比的主要难点在于需要精准的空间位置控制和姿态控制,对AUV定位和导航的精确性和可靠性有更高的要求。为满足对接任务对导航精度和可靠性的要求,同时考虑AUV的特性,本文提出了一种基于超短基线(USBL)定位的AUV对接导航方法。导航方法是引导载体沿一定航线从一点运动到另一点的方法,本文所说的导航方法由两个方面组成,一是定位方法,二是路径规划方法。因此论文的主要研究内容包含以下几个部分:1)根据USBL定位的特性和AUV对接任务的具体要求,提出一种合理可靠的对接导航方法,并完成对接过程的数学建模。2)提出一种新型的基于USBL的定位算法。定位算法利用AUV水动力模型,采用扩展卡尔曼滤波算法融合传感器数据和模型估算数据。该算法的特点在于可以解决USBL数据滞后的问题,同时能够动态估算海流以消除海流造成的定位误差。3)为引导AUV对接设计一种新型的路径规划方法。该方法基于人工势场法,其特点在于引入了可移动虚拟障碍点的概念。提出的路径规划算法实现简单但有效,适用于对接站转动和海流变化的情况。论文的研究对象是沈阳自动化研究所研制的50公斤级便携式AUV(“探索100”AUV),本文利用该AUV进行了湖试,并建立了仿真模型。搭建的仿真平台基于实验数据,仿真实验接近真实情形。通过大量的仿真实验,验证了定位算法的定位性能。此外对路径规划方法也进行了仿真实验。仿真结果证明本文提出的导航方法可满足AUV水下对接要求。
Other AbstractAutonomous underwater docking technology can greatly expand the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), so AUV docking becomes a research hotspot of underwater robots. Compared with other AUV missions, the main difficulty of the AUV docking is that it needs to control spatial position and attitude precisely, and AUV docking has higher requirements for robust and accuracy of AUV positioning and navigation. In order to meet the requirements of navigation for docking tasks, considering the particularity of AUV, this paper proposes an AUV docking navigation method based on ultra-short baseline (USBL) positioning. Navigation method refers how to guide the vehicle to move from one point to another along a certain route. The navigation mentioned in this paper consists of two aspects, one is the positioning, and the other is the path planning. So the main contents of the thesis include the following aspects: 1) According to the characteristics of USBL positioning and the specific requirements of AUV docking tasks, this paper proposed a reasonable and reliable docking navigation method and complete the mathematical model of the docking process. 2) A new USBL-based positioning algorithm is proposed. The position algorithm utilizes the AUV hydrodynamic model and uses the extended Kalman filter algorithm to fuse sensor data and model estimates. The algorithm is characterized by the solution of delay problem of USBL and the ability to dynamically estimate the current to eliminate the positioning error caused by currents. 3) Design a new path planning method for guidance of AUV docking. The method is based on the artificial potential field method, and is characterized by the use of a movable virtual obstacle point. The proposed path planning algorithm is simple but effective, can cope with the situation in which the docking station rotates and current changes during the docking. The paper takes the 50kg portable AUV ("Exploration 100" AUV) developed by Shenyang Institute of Automation as the research object, and uses the AUV to carry out the lake test,and then establishes a simulation platform. The built simulation platform is based on experimental data, and the simulation experiment is close to the real situation. The positioning performance of the statistical positioning algorithm is verified by a large number of simulation experiments. In addition, simulation experiments for path planning is made. The simulation results prove that the navigation method proposed in this paper can meet the requirements of AUV docking.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/25182
Collection水下机器人研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
裘天佑. 基于超短基线定位的 AUV 对接导航方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2019.
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