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混凝土壁面检测爬壁机器人的机构设计与分析
Alternative TitleWall-climbing robot,Negative pressure adsorption,Rolling seal,Dynamics modeling
秦基伟1,2
Department工艺装备与智能机器人研究室
Thesis Advisor常勇
Keyword爬壁机器人 负压吸附 滚动密封 动力学建模
Pages101页
Degree Discipline机械制造及其自动化
Degree Name硕士
2019-05-17
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract水电站混凝土流道壁面因长期受水流冲击及日晒雨淋会产生麻面、裂缝、凹坑等缺陷,为保证流道的安全使用,需要对壁面进行定期地检查维护。由于壁面较高,在人工检测前一般需要搭建脚手架检修平台,然而搭建和拆除脚手架费时费力,危险性高。针对上述问题,一些学者提出利用爬壁机器人搭载检测仪器进行检测。对于较平整的混凝土壁面,爬壁机器人适合采用负压吸附方式附着于壁面。负压吸附依靠密封腔内部与外界环境的压差产生的压力使机器人吸附在壁面,为维持腔体内外压差,需要在腔体四周设计密封装置以尽量减少流入腔内的空气流量。滑动密封装置结构简单,应用广泛,然而在机器人运动时,该装置与壁面之间存在较大的摩擦阻力,降低了机器人运动的灵活性,加速了密封装置的磨损。针对滑动密封存在的问题,本论文开展了基于滚动密封机理的爬壁机器人研究。滚动密封是指机器人运动时,密封单元相对于壁面以滚动运动为主,滚动运动减小了机器人运动时的摩擦阻力和密封材料的磨损。本论文的主要研究内容包括:(1)根据任务要求进行了基于滚动密封的爬壁机器人机构设计,该机构包括负压发生装置和滚动密封机构,前者主要用于抽出腔内空气,使腔内形成负压;后者既作为履带式移动机构驱动机器人运动,又作为前者的密封装置以维持腔内负压。(2)爬壁机器人力学特性分析。通过建立机器人吸附在壁面上的静力学模型,推导出机器人以任意姿态吸附在壁面上所需的最小吸附力;提出一种多履带协调运动的爬壁机器人动力学建模方法,通过建立该机器人直线运动及转向动力学方程,推导出这两种运动模式下履带牵引力的求解公式。(3)负压吸附系统的流场建模与仿真。通过建立负压吸附系统的流场模型,得出腔内负压值及风机功率的影响因素,并通过仿真结果得出空气在腔内的流动迹线及叶轮附近的静压分布。(4)基于爬壁机器人的机构设计和动力学模型,进行了爬壁机器人机械系统的设计。通过履带的结构改进,提高了其密封可靠性。(5)样机实验。通过样机实验验证了机器人具有密封可靠性较高、摩擦阻力较小、运动灵活、负载较大、运动速度较快、对壁面适应性强、密封装置不易磨损的特点,采集到的实验数据与爬壁机器人的力学特性仿真结果较接近。
Other AbstractThere are defects such as pockmarks, cracks, pits, etc. on the concrete flow channel wall of the hydropower station, which are caused by long-term impact by water flow, sun and rain. It is regularly for the wall surface to be inspected and maintained in order to ensure the safe use of the flow channel. It is generally necessary to build a scaffolding inspection platform before manual inspection due to the high wall surface. However, it is time-consuming and dangerous to construct and dismantle the scaffold. In response to the above problems, some scholars have proposed using wall-climbing robots equipped with detection instruments for detection. The wall-climbing robots are generally attached on the flat concrete walls by negative pressure adsorption. Negative pressure adsorption relies on the pressure generated by the differential pressure between the inside of the closed chamber and the atmosphere to cause the robot to adsorb on the wall. It is necessary to design a sealing device around the chamber to minimize the flow of air into the chamber in order to maintain the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the chamber. Sliding seal is widely used due to its simple construction. However, when the robot moves, there is a large frictional resistance between the device and the wall surface, which reduces the flexibility of the robot movement and accelerates the wear of the sealing device. Aiming at the problems of sliding seal, this paper has carried out research on wall-climbing robots based on rolling seal mechanism. Rolling seal refers to the rolling motion of the sealing unit relative to the wall surface during the movement of the robot, which reduces the frictional resistance and the wear of the sealing material during the movement of the robot. The main research contents of this thesis include: (1) According to the mission requirements, the design of the wall-climbing robot mechanism based on rolling seal is adopted. The mechanism includes a negative pressure generating device and a rolling seal mechanism. The former is mainly used to form negative pressure chamber by extracting air in the chamber; the latter is used as a tracked moving mechanism to drive the robot movement and also serves as a sealing device of the former to maintain the negative pressure in the chamber. (2) Analysis of mechanical properties of the wall climbing robot. the minimum adsorption force required for the robot to adsorb on the wall at each attitude angle is derived by establishing the static model of the robot on the wall. The linear motion and steering dynamics equation of the robot is established according to proposing a dynamic modeling method of wall-climbing robot with multi-track coordinated motion, and the formulas for solving the traction force of these two motion patterns are derived. (3) Flow field modeling and simulation of the negative pressure adsorption system. The influencing factors of the negative pressure value and the fan power are obtained by establishing the flow field model of the negative pressure adsorption system. The simulation results show the flow trace of air in the closed chamber and the static pressure distribution near the impeller. (4) The design of the mechanical system of the wall-climbing robot was carried out based on the mechanism design and dynamics model of the wall-climbing robot. The sealing reliability is improved through the structural improvement of the track. (5) Prototype experiment. The prototype experiment proves that the robot has the characteristics of high sealing reliability, small frictional resistance, flexible movement, large load, fast moving speed, strong adaptability to the wall surface, and hard wear of the sealing device. The collected experimental data is close to the simulation results of the mechanical properties of the wall robot.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/25185
Collection工艺装备与智能机器人研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
秦基伟. 混凝土壁面检测爬壁机器人的机构设计与分析[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2019.
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