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自治水下机器人回坞系统设计与控制方法研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Docking System Design and Control Algorithms of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
吕厚权1,2
Department海洋信息技术装备中心
Thesis Advisor郑荣
Keyword水下对接 自主入坞 AUV 路径跟踪 模糊PID
Pages88页
Degree Discipline机械工程
Degree Name硕士
2019-05-17
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract自治水下机器人(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, AUV)在人类探索海洋的过程中扮演着重要的角色,它极大地提高了人类探索海洋的能力。AUV自主入坞技术对发展水下自主回收、多AUV协同作业、海底组网观测、海陆空一体化作业具有重要的推动作用。论文以实际使用需求为导向,将AUV能够自主返回到坞站中实现数据交换和能源补给为目标研究了AUV的入坞技术。设计了适用于多种口径AUV包容式坞站,坞站共由五个部分构成:轴向限位机构、周向限位机构、电子仓、坞站主体、和圆锥形导向结构。周向限位机构巧妙的使用了连杆机构,使得该机构可以适用于多种口径的AUV,轴向和周向结构配合使用可以对AUV实现姿态调整,从而实现接插件物理连接。坞站使用液压系统作为传动装置。设计了基于超短基线的入坞方案。当坞站为固定坞站时,根据USBL定位数据和坞站结构规划出了最佳的U形状回坞路径,设计了用于回坞的路径跟踪控制律。当坞站为移动坞站时,以移动坞站运动特征为基准,建立了坞站坐标系,并对回坞区域进行了定义,设计了用于回坞的动态航路点和动态路径规划方法,提出了匹配路径特征的回坞导引和路径更新方法。研究了基于模糊理论的参数自调整PID算法,该算法在AUV原控制器的基础上对控制器参数进行在线调整,使其具有了一定的自适应特性。分析了模糊控制规则对控制效果的影响,提出了一种基于非线性函数的尺度变换方法处理控制器输入,简化了数据的量化过程。在基于Matlab/Simulink的仿真中,系统阶跃响应时,该方法相比PID算法能够获得较好的系统时间响应指标,对系统模型参数变化具有自适应特性;路径跟踪实验时,所设计方法在跟踪效果上更具有优势。通过AUV纯数字仿真体统对尺度变换函数的参数进行了优化。基于研究室现有AUV平台开展了大量的湖上试验,通过湖上试验验证了回坞方案、制导原理、和控制算法的有效性,航向控制方式对比试验中得出以下结论:两种方法都适用于水下回坞,采用横贯推进器进行航向调整,AUV转弯时深度变化小,深度偏差均值在0.5米以内;在对折线形的路径进行跟踪时,横贯推进器航向调整方式的跟踪能力更强,末程入坞阶段,与设定航线距离偏差均值比侧翼转向方式小0.34米。移动入坞试验时,AUV在水下不同深度、以不同的速度回坞时,相关方法能够保证较高的入坞成功率,技术固化后的入坞测试中,入坞成功率在90%以上。航向控制算法对比试验中,改进后的算法在AUV航向控制中能够获得更好的控制效果,在大角度转向中,该控制算法的优越性明显:系统响应快,超调小,航向误差均方差小。
Other AbstractThe Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) plays an important role in the process of human exploration of the ocean. It greatly enhances the human ability to explore the ocean. AUV underwater independent docking technology plays an important role in promoting underwater self-recovery, multi-robot collaborative operation, submarine network observation, sea, land and air integration operations. The paper is based on the actual user demand, and the AUV can return to the docking station for data exchange and energy replenishment as the target. The underwater docking technology of AUV is studied. Designed an inclusive docking station suit for a variety of caliber AUV, the docking station consists of five parts: axial limit mechanism, circumferential limit mechanism, electronic warehouse, docking station body, and conical guide structure. The circumferential limit mechanism cleverly uses the linkage mechanism, so that the mechanism can be applied to AUVs of various calibers. The axial and circumferential structures can be used together to adjust the attitude of the AUV, thereby realizing the physical connection of the connector n. The hydraulic system acts as a transmission. A docking scheme based on ultrashort baseline was designed. When the docking station is a fixed docking station, the optimal U-shaped docking path is planned according to USBL positioning data and docking station structure. The path tracking control law for docking is designed. When the docking station is a mobile docking station, the docking station coordinate system is established based on the moving characteristics of the mobile docking station, and the docking area is defined and designed for returning. A dynamic waypoint and dynamic path planning method for docking is designed. A backhaul guidance and path update method based on path Characteristic matching is proposed. The parameter self-adjusting PID algorithm based on fuzzy theory is studied. The algorithm adjusts the controller parameters online based on the original AUV controller, which makes the controller have some adaptive characteristics. The influence of fuzzy control rules on the control effect is analyzed. A scale transformation method based on nonlinear function is proposed to process the input data, which simplifies the quantization process of the input data. In the simulation based on Matlab/Simulink, when the step response of the system is tested, the method can obtain better system time response index than the PID algorithm, and has adaptive characteristics to the system model parameter changes; The design method has an advantage in tracking effect. In addition, the parameters of the scale transformation function are optimized by the AUV digital simulation system. Based on the AUV platform in the laboratory, a large number of lake experiments were carried out. The effectiveness of the Docking scheme, the guiding principle, and the control algorithm was verified by the lake test. The comparison of the heading control method led to the following conclusions: Both methods are applicable to Docking. when the traverse thruster is used for the heading adjustment, the depth change of the AUV is smaller, and the depth deviation is within 0.5 m. When tracking the path of the fold line, the tracking ability of the traverse propeller heading adjustment mode is stronger, during the final docking stage, the mean deviation from the set route distance is 0.34 meters smaller than the wing steering mode. In the mobile docking test, when the AUV is docked at different depths and at different speeds, the related method can ensure a high success rate of docking. In the docking test after technical solidification, the success rate of docking is over 90%. In the comparison test of the heading control algorithm, the improved algorithm can obtain better control effect in the AUV heading control. In the large angle steering, the superiority of the control algorithm is obvious: the system response is fast, the overshoot is small, and the heading error is squared. small.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/25209
Collection海洋信息技术装备中心
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吕厚权. 自治水下机器人回坞系统设计与控制方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2019.
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