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接触作业型旋翼飞行机器人建模与控制
Alternative TitleModeling and Control of Rotorcraft Aerial Manipulator Systems in Contact Operation Process
孟祥冬
Department机器人学研究室
Thesis Advisor韩建达
Keyword旋翼飞行机械臂 接触作业 接触力控制 阻抗控制 混合力/位置控制
Pages133页
Degree Discipline模式识别与智能系统
Degree Name博士
2019-11-25
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract旋翼飞行机器人在过去几十年间的发展已经取得显著的成果,集中应用在空中观测、农业植保、货物运送、编队表演等这类非对外部环境接触的领域。近几年,具有持续接触作业能力的旋翼飞行机械臂系统(由旋翼飞行机器人和机器人操作手臂构成),极大地激发了科研人员的研究热情;它们能够在观测的同时还可以对外进行主动操作,进行一些诸如桥梁损伤检查、工厂油罐检测维修、乔木树冠层标本采集等复杂的任务。接触作业型飞行机械臂系统作为新一代的空中飞行机器人,在研究中也一直面临诸多问题。常规旋翼飞行机器人动力学本身具有非线性、强耦合、欠驱动的特点,且系统对外部扰动十分敏感;对于以此为平台的飞行机械臂也固然具有这些特性。加装机械臂之后,整个飞行器就变成了典型的多刚体系统,与环境接触进行作业任务时,就给整体飞行机械臂系统的建模和控制带来很大挑战,尤其是末端接触作业时的动态力跟踪和移动接触作业时的恒定力保持等问题。本文针对以上问题展开深入研究,主要内容包括飞行机械臂系统的模型建立与分析,基于阻抗控制方法控制接触力,基于逆动力学的混合力/位置控制以及旋翼飞行机械臂系统设计与开发。具体研究内容如下:首先,提出了基于闭环系统再建模的方法。先为旋翼飞行器设计控制器,得到一个稳定的闭环系统;从理论上证明闭环飞行机器人系统在受到外部力作用下,其位置变动与所施加外力之间关系类似于质量-弹簧-阻尼系统动力学一致的动态特性。这种建模方法可以保证执行作业任务时的飞行器自身稳定性,并且避免了直接使用大系统建模方法导致的系统模型高度复杂和严重耦合。然后,通过分析飞行机械臂系统接触作业的特性,结合旋翼飞行机器人欠驱动特点及其接触作业的方式,对动态接触力平衡状态进行求解,明确接触力与自身系统状态参数的对应关系。其次,将常规的阻抗控制方法直接在飞行器系统上实现,通过实际飞行实验对该方法的效果进行研究,并分析本方法存在的局限性。在此基础上,提出了基于系统逆动力学的接触力控制方法。进一步为满足飞行机械臂系统在接触移动作业过程中对力和运动控制的需求,提出了一个混合力/位置的控制框架,以解决飞行机械臂系统接触环境作业时力和运动控制的问题。最后,开发了一系列用于空中接触操作的旋翼飞行机械臂系统,并将所研究理论方法在系统上实现,进行实际飞行接触作业的实验研究,包括针对理论验证的飞行实验和对空中作业应用研究的探索性实验,并对各个实验的过程及对应结果进行了分析。本文的研究工作包含接触作业型飞行机械臂系统的模型建立、动态接触力跟踪控制、移动接触作业的混合力/位置控制以及系统开发和空中飞行接触作业的实验研究。仿真和实际飞行结果证实了所研发接触作业型飞行机械臂系统的综合性能以及所提出方法的有效性。
Other AbstractRotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have developed for several decades and achieved great success, especially in those non-contact fields such as aerial observation, agricultural plant protection, aerial transportation, and formation flying show. In recent years, aerial manipulator systems with sustained contact operation capacity, composed of a UAV and a robotic manipulator, inspire researcher’s passion and enthusiasm. These systems not only can observe in the air, but also can conduct active operations in environment, such as bridge crack inspection, storage tank maintenance, canopy sampling, and some other complex tasks. The sustained contact aerial manipulator, as a new generation of aerial robots, is facing many research problems. Regular UAV dynamics is non-linear, strong-coupling, under-actuated, and sensitive to disturbance, which is the same for aerial manipulator dynamics. The whole UAV becomes a multi-rigid-body system when equipped with a robotic arm. Additionally, an aerial manipulator is usually applied to a physically-interactive environment, making system modeling and control chanllenging, and it is very difficult to track the variable contact force and maintain a constant force in a moving contact process. To solve these issues, this paper conducts an in-depth study, mainly including aerial manipulator system modeling and analysis, control the contact force with impedance method, conduct hybrid force and position based on inverse-dynamics strategy, and aerial manipulator system design and development. The concrete contents are as following: Firstly, a closed-loop system modeling method is proposed. Controllers are firstly designed for a UAV platform through analyzing aerial manipulator characteristics in contact operation, and then a stable closed-loop system is obtained. The relationship between UAV position response and the exerted external force, i.e., the behavior of the closed-loop UAV as a spring-mass-damper system, is theoretically proven. This method could maintain system stability and simplify the complicated UAV dynamics, in which the overall system modeling method usually results in a complicated and strong-coupling form. Considering the under-actuation property of UAV platforms and the contact operation mode, the dynamic force equilibrium relationship for an aerial manipulator is analyzed, which shows the contact force is related with system parameters. Secondly, a regular impedance control method is directly implemented on an aerial manipulator system to control the contact force in interaction with environment. Actual flight experiments are conducted to evaluate its efficiency, and its drawbacks are analyzed. In addition, an inverse-dynamics contact force control method is presented to track the dynamic force. To solve the contact force and motion control problem in a moving contact operation for aerial manipulators, a hybrid force and position control framework is applied. Finally, a series of aerial manipulator systems for air operation are developed, and the aforementioned methods are implemented on them. Different flight experiments are performed, including method evaluation experiment and aerial operation research experiment, and the results analysis are presented. The work of this paper consists of aerial manipulator system modeling, dynamic force tracking control, hybrid force and position control in a moving contact operation process, physical system development, and experiment research of aerial contact operation. Simulation and experiment results illustrate the reliable performance of these developed systems and the feasibility of the proposed methods.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/25934
Collection机器人学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孟祥冬. 接触作业型旋翼飞行机器人建模与控制[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2019.
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