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单孔手术机器人的系统设计与控制方法研究
Alternative TitleSystem Design and Control Method Research of Single Port Laparoscopy Robot
周圆圆
Department机器人学研究室
Thesis Advisor王志东 ; 刘浩
Keyword单孔手术 连续体机器人 常曲率建模 结构优化 机器人主从控制
Pages123页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2019-11-28
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract单孔手术由单一创口向腹腔置入多个器械开展手术,相比传统的多孔腔镜手术具有更加微创、恢复快、以及手术美容等诸多优点。但依赖于传统硬性腔镜器械的单孔腔镜手术存在“直线视野、操作三角丧失、器械干涉”等诸多难题。在多孔腹腔镜手术领域,达芬奇手术机器人已经取得了巨大的成功,单孔腔镜手术也必然朝着机器人化操作的方向迈进。与达芬奇手术机器人相比,单孔手术机器人具有操作灵巧度高、集成度高、可适应狭窄腔道等诸多优点,具有良好的临床应用前景和竞争力。本文是在国家重点研发计划、国家自然基金以及中国科学院等相关项目的资助下,进行单孔手术机器人的系统设计与精准控制方法研究。从系统总体设计、连续体手术臂构型创成、力学建模与运动控制等多个方面开展了深入研究,最终搭建起了单孔手术机器的样机,并进行相关实验验证与任务操作,验证所提出的设计与方法的可行性。进行了单孔手术机器人的本体结构设计。设计了三种连续体机器人的骨架结构:第一种是镍钛切槽弹性铰链骨架结构,可以实现骨架大变形的同时保证整体的连续变形,较好的平衡了机器人的末端负载能力与灵巧性。第二种是关节型连续体骨架,可以在较短尺寸下具有较好的灵活性。第三种是十字交叉盘式骨架,具有较好弯曲性能与轴向抗压缩能力,比较适用于类似镍钛丝等驱动与骨架复合型连续体机器人中。最后进行了外部悬挂机械臂的构型设计,设计了模块化手术臂,并进行了集成驱动机构设计,实现手术器械术中可更换,最终搭建起了单孔手术机器人的样机。对连续体机器人的力学驱动进行了建模研究。首先针对连续体机器人中常用的腱鞘驱动力学传递特性进行了分析,在经典的腱鞘驱动力学模型的基础上,对驱动过程中的驱动速度以及腱鞘直径比对力学传递的影响进行了研究,并对模型进行了修正,提出了一种考虑腱鞘直径比的力学传递模型,最终进行了相关的实验验证。随后对关节型连续体骨架进行力学驱动建模,在考虑摩擦内力的条件下对每个关节建立力与力矩平衡方程,求解弯曲的关节角度。该模型可以模拟弯曲和恢复过程中滞回现象,提高了建模精度,同时具有较好的计算效率。最后对镍钛切槽弹性铰链连续体骨架基于Cosserat梁理论进行了建模,通过求解连续体中柔性梁的静力学、运动学以及本构模型三组常微分方程组,可以求解出柔性梁的弯曲变形,并获得整个连续体的形状。通过实验验证了模型在三维空间中末端位置与指向具有较好的精度。并基于梁模型对切槽参数进行了优化设计,使得连续体结构在弯曲过程中能够尽量接近圆弧,可以提高控制精度。设计了一种两段型连续体机器人,具有7个自由度,以两段镍钛切槽连续体骨架串联组成。采用常曲率模型建立了机器人的正运动学,基于逆雅可比的控制方法建立机器人的逆运动学学控制。基于运动学模型,以连续体机器人的操作灵活性为目标,以关节形变能力为约束,提出了一种优化设计连续体机构形变段几何参数的方法。最后进行了相关实验,测试机器人的控制精度。提出了一种联动型的连续体机器人构型方案,可以实现多段连续体间的驱动解耦和末端位置与姿态控制解耦,并且在驱动与骨架复合型连续体机器人中可以实现由远及近的刚度加强,能够提高末端负载能力。基于该构型采用十字交叉盘式骨架,以镍钛丝作为驱动腱,设计实现了一款联动型连续体机器人。基于常曲率模型建立了机器人的正运动学,并且基于机器人的末端位置与姿态解耦特性,求解了其解析逆运动学。最后进行了相关实验,验证了联动构型的多段驱动解耦能力以及基于解析逆运动学的控制精度。进行单孔手术机器人的系统集成与实验。搭建了单孔手术机器人的软硬件平台,并基于7自由度主手设计绝对式与增量式两种主从映射的控制方法。进行了主从操作的控制精度实验,对连续体机器人的重复定位精度与末端指向精度进行了测试,对机器人的负载能力进行了测试。最后进行了套圈、缝合、打结等典型腹腔手术训练操作任务,充分验证了本文所研究的方法和结构的可行性。综上所述,本文主要是进行了单孔手术机器人的系统结构设计与控制方法研究。包括连续体机器人的构型设计、力学建模与运动学建模控制,最终形成了一套单孔手术机器人系统,并进行了相关的实验验证本文所设计的结构与提出的方法的可行性。本文的研究工作对单孔手术机器人的理论研究与工程化实现具有重要的参考意义,在单孔手术机器人面向临床应用的道路上又向前推进了一步。
Other AbstractSingle Port Laparoscopy (SPL) inserts multiple instruments into the abdominal from a single port to perform surgery. Compared with traditional laparoscopic surgery, it has many advantages such as minimally invasive, quick recovery, and good outcomes. However, SPL that relies on traditional rigid endoscopic instruments has many problems such as straight-line view, loss of operation triangle, and collision between instruments. In the field of multiple port laparoscopic surgery, Da Vinci surgical robots have achieved great success, and SPL will also be robotized. Compared with the Da Vinci surgical robot, the SPL robot has many advantages such as high operational dexterity, high integration, and adaptable to narrow lumen. Therefore, it has good clinical application prospects and competitiveness. Supported by the National Key Research & Development Plan, the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences self-plan project, the aim of this paper is to design a SPL robot system. In-depth research was carried out in the system design, the creation of the continuum surgical operation arm, the mechanical modeling and the motion control. Finally, the prototype of the SPL robot was set up. Experiments and task operation were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed designs and methods. The mechanical structures design of the SPL robot was carried out. Three kind skeleton structures for continuum robots are designed. The first one is a NiTi noteched elastic hinge skeleton structure, which can realize large deformation while ensuring the continuity of the robot body, and it have a better balance of the end load capacity and dexterity for the robot. The second type is an articulated continuum skeleton that provides better flexibility in shorter sizes. The third type is a spatial cross-curved disk skeleton with good bending performance and axial compression resistance, and is suitable for driving and skeleton composite type continuum robots such as NiTi wire driving. The configuration of the external positioning robot is optimized. The modular surgical opertation arm and four integrated drive modules were designed, achieving the exchangeability of instruments during surgery. Finally, the prototype of the SPL robot was built. The mechanical driven models of the continuum skeleton was researched. Firstly, the mechanical transfer characteristics of the tendon sheath actuation used in continuum robots are analyzed. Based on the classical tendon sheath actuation modeling, the influence of the driving speed and the diameter of the tendon on the forces transmission are studied. The model was modified with considering the ratio of the diameter between the tendon and sheath. Then the mechanically driven modeling of the articulated continuum skeleton was carried out. The force and moment balance equations were established for each joint with considering the friction internal force. The model can simulate the hysteresis in the bending and unbending process, which can improve the modeling accuracy, and it also has better computational efficiency. Finally, the NiTi elastic hinged continuum skeleton was modeled based on the Cosserat beam theory. By solving the three sets of ordinary differential equations (static, kinematic and constitutive models), the bending deformation of the continuum robot can be got. The experimental results show that the model has better accuracy in the end position and orientation in three-dimensional space. Based on the beam theory modeling of the NiTi elastic hinge continuum, the grooving parameters of the elastomer structure were optimized, so that the continuum structure can be as close as possible to the constant curvature model, which can improve the control precision. A two-segment continuum robot with 7 degrees of freedom was designed, which was composed of two sections of NiTi noteched elastic hinge skeleton continuum. Based on the constant curvature model, the kinematics and velocity Jacobian of a single-segment continuum structure were established. Then, the kinematics of the two-segment continuum robot and the velocity inverse Jacobian control method were setup. Based on the kinematics, with the aim of the operational dexterity of key points and the constraint of joint deformation ability, the geometric parameters of the deformation skeleton of the continuum robot were optimized. Experiments to verify the accuracy of the modeling and controlling were carried out. A motion-decoupling configuration was proposed, which can realize the decoupling of driving between the multi-segment continuum and the decoupling of control between the end position and attitude, and the stiffness of the skeleton was gradually strengthened from distal to proximal end under this configuration. Based on this configuration, by using the spatial cross-curved disk skeleton and NiTi wire tendon, a motion decoupling continuum robot was realized. The forward kinematics of the robot was established based on the constant curvature model. As the characteristics of its decoupling configuration, the analytical inverse solution of the inverse kinematics of the continuum robot was solved. Experiments were carried out to verify the decoupling between the multi-segment continuum driven and the control accuracy based on the analytical inverse kinematics. System integration and experiments of the SPL robot were carried out. The software and hardware platform of the SPL robot were built. The control methods of absolute and incremental master-slave mapping were designed based on the 7 DOF master robot. The control precision experiment of the master-slave operation was carried out. The repeated positioning accuracy and orientation accuracy of the continuum robot were tested. The load capacity of the robot was tested. Finally, the typical abdominal surgery training operation tasks with SPL robot such as ferrule, suture and knotting were carried out, which verified the feasibility of the method and design studied in this paper. In summary, this paper mainly studies on the system structure design and control method of SPL robot. After the configuration design, mechanical modeling and kinematics control of the continuum robot, a novel SPL robot was finally formed, and experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed structures and methods. The research work of this paper has important significance for the theoretical research and engineering realization of SPL robots, and it has taken a step forward for the road of clinical application of SPL robots.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/25946
Collection机器人学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周圆圆. 单孔手术机器人的系统设计与控制方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2019.
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