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双层扑翼微型飞行器的气动设计与控制技术研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Aerodynamic Design and Control of biplane flapping wing micro air vehicle
江涛
Department机器人学研究室
Thesis Advisor刘光军 ; 崔龙
Keyword扑翼 微型飞行器 仿生飞行器 非定常气动力
Pages126页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2019-09-10
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract微型飞行器适于在开放区域或狭小的封闭空间内飞行,对化工品、毒气泄漏等危险场景进行勘察。微小的外形使其难于被发现,因此特别适合于军事上的战场隐蔽侦察;而轻巧的重量使其便于单兵操作。因此,微型飞行器在民用和军事领域具有巨大的潜在用途。相比于固定翼和旋翼微型飞行器在小雷诺数条件下面临着气动效率低下的难题,扑翼微型飞行器凭借“前缘涡延迟失速”、“旋转环流”、“尾迹捕获”、clap-and-fling等非定常气动机制使其在昆虫尺寸条件下获得了更高的气动力和气动效率。通过对昆虫、鸟类翅膀运动方式的模仿和利用有望进一步提升飞行器的操控性和灵活性。为了得到气动效率高、结构紧凑、操控灵活的微型扑翼飞行器,需要综合考虑扑翼飞行器的非定常气动力、翅膀运动机构设计与优化,以及相应的飞行器控制方法的简单性、有效性等。针对以上问题本文在以下几个方面开展了研究:首先,针对双层扑翼飞行器翅膀的二自由度运动,利用计算流体力学的方法对气动力和流场进行了数值仿真,分析了翅膀扑动、翅膀俯仰运动对非定常气动力分量的影响;并从翼面涡的运动、翼面压力分布等方面,对飞行器轴向力和法向力的控制机理进行了研究。考察了双层微型扑翼飞行器在多种翅膀运动模式状态下的气动力的变化情况。然后,提出一种翅膀能被动俯仰运动的扑翼运动机构,其柔性翼根是主要研究对象。通过柔性翼根的结构设计对翅膀被动俯仰运动参数进行优化,进而提高扑翼飞行器的气动力。此外,建立了翅膀被动俯仰运动方程,确定了俯仰角幅值、相位与翅膀俯仰转动惯量、柔性翼根的阻尼系数和刚度系数之间的关系,并进一步通过参数敏感性分析确定了影响俯仰角幅值、相位的关键参数。 最后,针对有尾双层扑翼飞行器在悬停时纵向姿态镇定和悬停点附近的飞行控制进行了研究。建立扑翼飞行器纵向运动的动力学模型,在近悬停状态下对飞行器尾翼水平偏角进行了配平。基于小扰动线性化假设得到平衡点附近的线性化纵向运动方程,并基于该纵向运动方程进行了有尾双层扑翼的纵向稳定性分析,利用尾翼对纵向扰动进行姿态镇定,研究了尾翼在阶跃信号和正弦信号等作用下对双层扑翼飞行器在悬停点附近的飞行控制作用。本文从扑翼非定常空气动力学分析、飞行器结构设计和飞行器动力学建模与控制等三个方面对双层扑翼飞行器进行了系统地研究,提出一种气动效率高、机身结构紧凑轻巧、控制简便、飞行动作灵活的双层扑翼飞行器,并为扑翼飞行器的气动力优化与控制提供了一个思路,为扑翼飞行器在制导与控制方面的进一步发展提供了一定的理论基础和技术支撑。
Other AbstractThe micro air vehicle (MAV) is suitable for flying in open areas or small enclosed spaces to investigate dangerous scenes such as chemicals and gas leaks. The small size of the aircraft makes it difficult to be discovered. Consequently, it is especially suitable for concealed reconnaissance on the military battlefield. Moreover, the lightweight makes it easy to operate by the soldier alone. Therefore, MAV has enormous potential applications in the civilian and military fields. Compared with the fixed-wing and rotor MAVs, which faces the problem of low aerodynamic efficiency under the small Reynolds number condition, the flapping-wing MAV (FMAV) relies on the unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, such as "leading-edge vortex delayed stall", "rotational circulation", "wake capture" and clap-and-fling, for higher aerodynamic force and efficiency under insect-size conditions. The imitation and utilization of the wing motion of insects and birds are expected to further enhance the maneuverability and agility for the FMAV. In order to obtain an FMAV with high aerodynamic efficiency, compact structure, and maneuverability, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the unsteady aerodynamics for the FMAV, the flapping mechanism, and the simplicity and effectiveness of the aircraft control method. For these purposes, we have worked in the following several aspects: Firstly, for the two-degree-of-freedom wing motion of biplane FMAV, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used to simulate the aerodynamic force and flow field. The effects of wing flapping or pitching on the unsteady aerodynamic components were analyzed. The control mechanism of the axial and normal force for the biplane FMAV was studied from the viewpoint of the vortex evolution and the airfoil pressure. Furthermore, the aerodynamics of biplane FMAV under various wing motion patterns were investigated. Then, a flapping mechanism with passive wing pitching was proposed, and the flexible wing root is the research focus. The kinematic parameters of passive wing pitching were determined by designing the flexible wing root, to improve the aerodynamic force of the biplane FMAV. What is more, the dynamical model of the passive wing pitching was obtained, based on which the relationships between the pitch angle amplitude, the phase and the pitching moment of inertia, the damping coefficient as well as the stiffness coefficient of the flexible wing root were established. Key structural parameters of wing root to the pitch amplitude and phase were analyzed with parameter sensitivity. Finally, we studied the stabilization of the longitudinal attitude and the flight control for the biplane FMAV near hovering. The longitudinal dynamics of the aircraft was modeled, and the hovering FMAV was trimmed with the horizontal tail. Based on the small-disturbance assumption, the longitudinal dynamical model was linearized near the equilibrium, based on which the longitudinal stability of the tailed biplane FMAV was analyzed, the longitudinal attitude of FMAV under disturbance was stabilized with the tail. Besides, the flight control with tail in step or sinusoidal signal was studied for the biplane FMAV near hovering. This paper systematically studied the biplane FMAV from three aspects: unsteady aerodynamics analysis, aircraft structural design, and dynamical modeling and control. We proposed a tailed biplane FMAV with high aerodynamic efficiency, compact and lightweight body structure, as well as a useful but straightforward flight control method, leading to a maneuverable biomimetic aircraft. Our work provides some reference for the aerodynamic optimization and control for the FMAV and perhaps serves as a specific theoretical basis and technical support for the further development in guidance and control for the flapping-wing micro air vehicle.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/25950
Collection机器人学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
江涛. 双层扑翼微型飞行器的气动设计与控制技术研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2019.
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